Perception is arguably one of the most contentious issues in epistemology or the theory of knowledge. It is in fact considered a fulcrum of the discourse as it appears to encapsulate the different thought patterns as to the explanation of how epistemological agents encounter and extract basic bodies of knowledge from the world as it is. Different theories have however been put forward in the explanation of how perception translates to a true, justified belief of the external world, ourselves and extra sensory states. This paper is therefore a review of some of the prominent theories of perception. It also analyses some of the fundamental propositions of the theories in the process of knowing and justifying what is known. It concludes that the theories are rather, more complimentary than divergent since perception can either be sensory or introspective.
Unlike the earlier linguistic studies of political discourse which focused on the genres of campaign speeches, presidential inaugural addresses, interviews, political advertisements and newspaper advertorials, this study examines the face acts and impoliteness strategies in Obasanjo’s appeal letter to former Nigerian President Jonathan; titled ‘Before it is too late” ( i.e BITL). Simple percentage statistical tool was used to analyse the face acts and impoliteness strategies in it. Besides, Brown and Levinson’s (1987) face acts, Culpeper’s (1996), impoliteness and VanDijk’s (1977) socio-cognitive theories serve as the eclectic theoretical framework for the study. The findings revealed that Obasanjo’s BITL is characterised by FTA with redress, bald-on-record politeness and FSA . The text is equally characterised by bald-on-record impoliteness, mock impoliteness, as well as negative and positive impoliteness strategies. Also, Obasanjo used dysphemisms and expletives as tools to butt Goodluck Jonathan and to impose on his audience’s face want. The author rides on participants’ shared cognitive and situational knowledge to pract threatening, condemning warning, stating, praising and sympathising. It was also revealed that FSA was used by Obasanjo to exonerate himself from the alleged Jonathan’s ‘misrule’. The paper concludes that only the understanding of cognition, discourse and context interface could be used to infer the meaning construction and comprehension as well as the author’s intention from the text of BITL.
The African people have varying behaviors, mannerisms, beliefs, thought patterns and way of interaction and all of these differences formed their culture and impacted their way of life. However, with the coming of the Europeans of Africa came cultural infiltration, pollution as well as alteration. This paper analyses Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart from the angle of masculinity and cultural clash as brought about by Westernization. The method of investigation is analytical and descriptive, using the formalist approach: that is looking at the actions, events, sentences and interactions of the characters in order to identity and discuss how males are portrayed, paying attention to issues of cultural realism, behaviors, actions and statements of the characters. The findings of the paper confirmed that African viewpoint of masculinity and cultural tends to be opposed to that of the Europeans, as the action and behaviors appropriate to a man in each society tend to differ. This led to different clashes from religious, cultural, ideological, to social beliefs. the conclusion that cultural clashes exist in the work and contributed to the final play out of the story, where the traditional belief system had to make way for Western ones; making things fall apart. The paper reveals that the male characters have both cultural and individual masculine idiosyncrasies and that the complexities of male roles confirm the pluralistic and slippery nature of masculinity.
Any full-length critical work on Seamus Heaney’s poetry indispensably or pertinently touches on his bog poems incorporated in Heaney’s first four poetry collections. Composed mostly in quatrains, these poems actually represent the essential Heaney and subsequently suffice to fathom his distinctive poetics in the Irish-English literary tradition. The first of these poems constitute Heaney’s archaeological discourse on the metaphorical grandeur of Ireland for its temporal and spatial features of bog while the later ones which raised Heaney to a greater prominence define his aesthetic and political stance during the Irish Troubles. In fact, Heaney’s bog poems have become windows into his oeuvre including his prose works too. This paper claims that the bog poems alone constitute Heaney’s distinctive poetics per se and make him perpetually relevant in literary studies. The corollary of this paper comes to the point that understanding the essential Heaney is grounded in the bog poems.
A Discourse Analysis of Selected Football Texts (Published)
This study investigates the discourse analysis of football texts. The choice of football texts from the Nigerian newspaper was motivated by my personal interest in football and the popularity soccer has gained in recent years across the world. The study covers the football texts selected from Complete Sports which dominated the Nigerian sports’ news market. The largest number of sports lovers across the country source their information on sports most especially football news from the selected newspaper based on its popularity and accurate reporting of sporting activities the world over. Lead article from each of the newspaper were selected for a period of one month during 2010 world cup making a total of 30 lead articles. Ansary and Babai 2005 discourse Generic Structure Potential was applied to unmask the discourse structure of football text in newspapers and it contextual configuration. Talking about the discourse Generic Structure Potential (GSP), it is the total structural resources of text genre. This organizational sequencing are classified as obligatory, optional and recursive elements. Each of these classifications serves specific purposes or functional role in the texts.
This study aims at investigating the stylistic variation in the media language of Jordan. The study explores this variation by analyzing some extracts from the opinion articles from both Al-Rai newspaper in Arabic and the Jordan Times newspaper in English in order to find out a justification for this variation. The study methodology is based on the contrastive analysis of the quotations from both newspapers in light of the critical discourse analysis theory. The study concludes that the stylistic variation in the media language of Jordan is due mainly to the status of readers and writers of the discourse and to the writers’ and readers’ cultural and national ideologies that influence the writers’ selections of words.
Texts, in their various forms are not created in a vacuum, but they are contents of certain messages which the reader decodes for use. Being language use in naturally occurring situations, a text involves meaningful linguistic manipulations as well as ideational and interpersonal interaction in its realization in what is expressed as cohesion and coherence in textual building. Every meaningful text is an embodiment of cohesive network within the discourse (internal) and the other experimental (external) factors in the making and understanding of such a text. In this paper, we closely examine what a text is and made a case for its interchangeable use with discourse without contradictions. Much attention is also given to the cohesive devices which form the main network of links, ties and chains within a linguistic text but with the evidences that a text may be cohesively well-structured without the status of a coherent text which is the ultimate. Finally, a pedagogical intervention is recommended to cushion the problem associated with the acquisition of the required knowledge of cohesion and coherence in textual creation.
The study examined Nigeria Foreign Policy from 1960-2012. The objective was to find out whether there is any change in foreign policy orientation among the various regimes or administrations within the period of study. The method of study employed was historical and descriptive research study methods. To this end, the analysis was done thematically and the results or findings show that the logic and the instrumentality of domestic development linkage theory in foreign policy is virtually lacking in Nigerian foreign policy behaviour. This is because Afrocentric foreign policy commitment overwhelmingly overshadows domestic reality. Although the Obasanjo’s and Jonathan’s economic diplomacy try to aligned the nation’s economic reality (The NEEDS policy and Transformation agenda) with her international interaction, however, much of the foreign policy resources were not deployed to bear on the welfare of the citizenry hence, the current economic crisis in the country. Based on this, the study recommends a paradigm shift of using foreign policy as an instrument for the revitalizations and the diversification of the nation’s economy to engineer national development.
Political Discourse: A Critical Discourse Analysis of President Muhammadu Buhari’s Inaugural Speech (Published)
Political speeches are many just as political forums and events are. This Paper Critically analyses the inaugural Speech of President Muhammadu Buhari which was delivered shortly after his swearing into office on the 29th May, 2015. In carrying out the analysis, Norman Furlough’s three dimensional Analytical Models was adapted. Following the model, the speech was subjected to description (text analysis), interpretation (processing/ analysis) and explanation (social practice and analysis). The result of the analysis showed that an inaugural speech is a revelation of plans and hopes in the new government. The speech analyzed particularly revealed the ideologies/ plans on which the new government headed by President Muhammadu Buhari intends to operate. The most important ones include good governance, strengthening international relations, foreign Policies and democracy, fight insecurity, corruption, and improve power supply and the nation’s economy.
Language Use in Political Advertising- A Rhetorical Discourse on “See Who Wants to Be President of Nigeria” (Published)
Effective communication is essential in consensus building and public opinion. Language as the vehicle for thought expression generates feelings which are exploited for political gains in an electioneering campaign. It means that word choice and their purposes are explored in political communication to secure a berthe for asserting justifications in a political context. This discourse, therefore, analyses how “See who wants to be President of Nigeria,” was used, through political advertisement, to expose incompetence and ignorance as unacceptable in a decent and democratic society, like Nigeria. It is an exercise in political communication, using language and word choice as the becon for the rejection of a candidate in Nigeria’s presidential election of April, 2015.
Fair-trade is concerned with ensuring that producers are paid fair wages and that fair prices are charged consumers in a bid to promote equitable trading agreement (shaw et al 2006). This paper investigates recent discourse associated with fair trade particularly clothing companies. It argues for fair trade as a veritable tool for ensuring fair wages and prices but points out some of the issues concerned with carrying out fair trade activities. This paper was based on secondary data. The findings suggest that despite the relevant roles fair trade plays, and the high media publicity associated with it, most consumers still find it difficult to recognise fair trade products because of the negative practices and poor promotional efforts with companies. While this paper highlights some of the unethical practices organisations have engaged which impact negatively on fair trade, it suggests some of the remedies especially to organisations that have interest in practicing fair trade in future. The study recommendations that providing certified labelling will enable consumers read and identify fair trade product easily. It also recommends that ensuring adequate corporate social responsibility and quality of the products are way forward
BEYOND ANTHROPOLOGICAL AND ASSOCIATIONAL DISCOURSE- INTERROGATING THE MINIMALISM OF IKOM MONOLITHS AS CONCEPT AND FOUND OBJECT ART (Published)
Ikom Monoliths are a unique form of African visual creativity, which typifies a traditional art genre defined by minimalism aesthetics. These unique abstractionism, positions the Ikom Monoliths apart, in formal configuration and content, from other established traditional African art conventions. However, this unique aesthetic paradigm imbedded in the Ikom Monoliths, is under-researched. The main purport of this study was aimed art propounding a new perspective of investigating these creative stone carvings, which will bring to lime light their peculiar artistic visual qualities, and locate them within a creative conventional context. At the base of this study, the current discourse on Ikom Monoliths was surveyed, which indicated that, such discourse was drawn along anthropological lines of investigation, which incorporates various ambiguities. This is because, such anthropological discourse reduces these monoliths to mere artefacts and monuments, thereby depriving them of their artistic being. This study equally identified the discourse of aesthetic association, as another paradoxical mode of enquiry employed by most scholars in discussing Ikom Monoliths and pointed out that, the association/relation of the Ikom Monoliths with Western European monuments like Stonehenge, Menhirs, or Megaliths, was both problematic and misleading. This study rather employed an artistic methodology of investigation which focused on interrogating the visual artistic qualities of these stone carvings. The result of this intrinsic investigation, led to the submissions that, the Ikom Monoliths possesses conceptual minimalist qualities which set them apart as a peculiar aesthetic genre from other traditional African artworks, and further positing that the Ikom Monoliths are traditional Found Object. This findings therefore, underpins the fact that, the concept of Found Object transmutation in African art, predates its usage and appearance in Western European art cultures.
Globalization or discourses about it enjoy universal spread. This global visibility persists despite the belief that there are features of globalization that is destructive of social equilibrium. This seeming contradictory nature is explored with Nigeria as a setting. Nine typical textual exemplars were theoretically sampled from leading Nigerian media and displayed as data. Analytical facilities found in Semiotics and Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) are drawn on in the analysis of the sampled textual exemplars. Analysis found that instead of focusing on the woeful economic consequences which should portray globalization in a bad light, the media report globalization in styles that hide globalization’s dire economic consequences. It is recommended that the mass media should embrace the emerging media technologies because such technologies could help the media mobilize ordinary people to recognize and resist the harmful attributes of globalization.