Language is not only as communication tool but also have potential as political tool. In the context of International Relations study, language can be used as state political tool in the context of cultural diplomacy. Language is used to influence foreign public and develops positive image. Bahasa Indonesia have potential as a tool of Indonesian cultural diplomacy. It is supported by the Indonesia position as the largest country in Southeast Asia and Bahasa Indonesia is used by majority in the region. This article focus on the way to develop Bahasa Indonesia as a tool of Indonesian diplomacy by learning from other countries experiences like Japan Foundation of Japan, Confucius Institute of China, and Goethe Institute of Germany. From those countries experiences there are three strategies that can be considered to develop Bahasa Indonesia as cultural diplomacy’s tool. First is the establishment of Indonesian cultural and language center including with the programs. Second is the development of cooperation with education institutions such as university to open Bahasa Indonesia program under their Asian studies. And strengthening Indonesian position in economic and politics, especially in the region as significance factor the importance of Bahasa Indonesia.
Rhetorical Diplomacy: A Study of Nigeria’s President Muhammadu Buhari’s Speech To the 70th Session of the United Nations General Assembly- September, 2015 (Published)
Diplomatic texts-oral or written-are usually deemed to be of a high significance. The significance of a diplomatic texts is based on the fact that it comes from the personality of a Head of State (or government or his representative) who is a mouth piece of a country by virtue of the office he holds and his utterances are channeled to influence the official relationship of states. This genre, surprisingly, has been given relatively very little attention by scholars and linguists. This study entitled: “Rhetorical Diplomacy: A study of Nigeria’s President Muhammadu Buhari‘s speech to the 70th Session of the United Nations General Assembly”, is an analytical study of the pragmatic strategies of the President with the aim of determining their effectives in conveying the speakers intentions to his audience. The analysis, carried out in this study, was based on the theoretical backcloth of the Speech Act theory by Austin (1962) and Searle, (1969, 1999). Specifically, the study adopted Searle (1999)’s taxonomy of speech acts which gave primacy not to the types of speech acts, but to their illocutionary points /forces. As a result of this, the utterances were analysed as diplomatic actions taken by the President, in terms of their illocutionary points/ forces and the perlocutionary effects they have on his audience. Our basic findings show that the President made use of expressive, assertive, commissive, and directive speech acts to perform various direct and indirect interactive acts which were found to be diplomatically correct in foregrounding and communicating Nigeria’s challenges and polices to the global community. The data however, revealed no instance of the use of verdictive and declarative acts by the President. The paper concluded that the study of the deployment of speech acts as a strategy in political and diplomatic speeches, contributes to a better understanding of multilateral and bilateral communication and provides insights into presidential outputs in diplomatic meetings.
The paper examines the doctrine of “economic diplomacy” which formed the bedrock of Nigeria’s foreign policy during the General Ibrahim Babangida’s regime between 1985 and 1993. The paper highlights the major achievements and failures of the policy during the period under review. Based on its findings, the paper concludes that the failure of the Nigerian state in all ramifications and the conspiracy and hostility of the international environment, combined to frustrate the lofty ideas contained in the ‘new’ Nigerian economic diplomacy