Tag Archives: Differentiation

Genome-sequence, zygote, differentiation of embryonic stem cells into structurally and functionally different specialized body cells in humans: there is no “junk DNA” at all in the human genome (Published)

About 250 specialized cell types are organized into tissues, organs, and organsystems in the body of humans. Differentiation of cells both in structure & function generally depends on gene expression rather than on any changes in the nucleotide sequence of the cell’s genome. The key objective of this paper was to verify that no “junk DNA” at all in the human genome and to confirm the fact that the synthesizer of generations of Homo sapiens & of all other genomic-things is the Genome. The cell types in a multicellular organism become different from one another because they synthesize and accumulate different sets of RNA and protein molecules. They generally do this without altering the sequence of their DNA with the exception of B & T lymphocytes in the immune system. Differentiation occurs because specific genes in each cell are turned on and off in complex regulated pattern. A stem cell is an unspecialized cell that can divide without limit as needed and can, under specific conditions, differentiate into specialized cells. The stem cells derived from a zygote are described as:- totipotent, pluripotent, multipotent, and oligopotent stem cells. In contrast, a unipotent cell is fully specialized and can only reproduce to generate more of its own specific cell type. The primary mechanism by which genes are turned “on” or “off” is through transcription factors. A transcription factor is one of a class of proteins that bind to specific genes on the DNA molecule and either promote or inhibit their transcription. Transcription factors regulate gene expression. Transcription factors affect the binding of RNA polymerase to a particular gene on the DNA molecule. Researchers have recently developed induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from human adult stem cells. The induced pluripotent stem cells do function like embryonic stem cells. Non-coding RNAs are a group of RNA transcripts that do not necessarily code for proteins instead they perform the task of regulatory functions. The science of genomic-things  is superior to all branches of natural science because the scientist himself, who creates all other nonbiological sciences, is a genomic-thing and belongs to biological sciences. The science of genomic-things is a superscience being the science of priority to invest in. In the automatic functional & structural performance of human genome, every component of it is indispensably useful and none of it is junk DNA at all!! 100% of genome’s components, in all species of genomic-things from biological viruses up to humans, are unavoidably useful in the task of synthesizing the individuals & populations of its species in different ecosystems on Earth let alone those of human genome!!!! The genome synthesizes genomic-things & their products using:- proteins (structural & functional) translated from its transcripts, and its transcripts directly without translating. Biological sciences are brought up to the status of superscience (the science of genomic-things) by Feleke’s Genome Model of genomic-things. Scientists of biological sciences are authentically called superscientists because biological sciences which are their fields of study have been spectacularly developed to the status of superscience. Establishing a Global Center of Superscience (GCS) is crucial.

Keywords: Differentiation, Gene expression, Genome, Non-coding RNA, Stem cell, Transcription factors, embryonic stem cell

Empathy as a Peace Negotiation Strategy in an English Language Classroom: The Case of some Secondary Schools in Maroua (Published)

This paper investigates Empathic Teaching Practices by English Language teachers during their English language classes as a strategy to achieve better teaching goals thereby negotiating peace within them and enhancing development in their students. Using well-known principles of Rogers’ client-cantered therapy as theoretical framework, a questionnaire was designed and administered to some 19 English Language teachers from two secondary schools in Maroua to illicit data which later generated discussion on the subject matter. Findings revealed teachers lack of knowledge on empathy and differentiation. Further findings depicted English Language teachers lack of cognitive knowhow of the various background and deficits of learners they have in class and thus fail to constantly adopt empathic strategies that include all category of learners when planning language lessons, designing and developing classroom materials and assessment tasks and thus responsible for underachievement in language teaching and antagonism in the language classroom.

Keywords: Differentiation, Empathy, impaired learners, peace negotiation., teaching goals

Effect of Know-Want-Learn (KWL) Differentiation and Jigsaw Cooperative Learning Strategies on Students’ Performance in Social Studies (Published)

The study investigated effects of Know-Want-Learn (KWL) differentiation and Jigsaw Cooperative Learning (JCL) strategies on the performance of Social Studies students at the Junior Secondary School (JSS) level in Port Harcourt Local Government Area of Rivers State. Two research questions and two corresponding hypotheses guided. The study adopted the quasi-experimental pre-test post-test control group design. The study involved three groups. Two experimental groups (Know-Want-Learn (KWL) differentiation learning strategy and Jigsaw Cooperative Learning (JCL) strategy) and a control group taught with traditional learning strategy. The sample consisted of 177 (90 male students and 87 female students) Junior Secondary School II (JSS II) students drawn from three Government Co-educational Secondary Schools. A 25 multiple choice test items, title “Social Studies Achievement Test (SOSAT)” developed by the researchers which covers two topics: Meaning and Consequences of Drug Abuse and Harmful Substances, and Dangers of Drug Trafficking in the Junior Secondary School II Social Studies Curriculum Scheme of Work was the research instrument. The instrument was validated and had reliability coefficient of 0.84 via Kuder Richardson (KR-21) for a measure of its internal consistency. The relevant data gathered were analyzed with mean, standard deviation, graphical plot associated with Analysis of Co-variance (ANCOVA). The findings of the study showed that Know-Want-Learn (KWL) differentiation and Jigsaw Cooperative Learning (JCL) strategies could improve the performance of junior secondary school students in Social Studies. However, the interaction effect of Know-Want-Learn (KWL) differentiation, Jigsaw Cooperative Learning (JCL) strategies and gender on students’ performance in Social Studies was not significant. Hence, it was recommended among others that teacher training workshops should be organized and sustained for Social Studies teachers across the country, exposing them to innovative strategies that encourage active learning and teaching for the 21st century learner and teacher.

Keywords: Differentiation, Jigsaw Cooperative Learning (JCL) Social Studies, Know-Want-Learn (KWL), Port Harcourt LGA.

Differentiating the ESL Reading Comprehension Classroom for Inclusive Education (Published)

There is a growing need today for teachers to tailor their instructions to meet the different learner profile and learning styles in the classroom. The ESL teacher has greater challenges given that the English language has become a global language, and that most ESL classrooms include students with a wide variety of academic needs, cultural backgrounds, learning styles, and languages. Differentiated instruction is the panacea to cater for all these challenges faced by the ESL teacher in this globalized era. In a differentiated classroom, the teacher closely assesses and monitors skills, knowledge levels and interests to determine effective ways for all students to learn; thereby ensuring learner-centredness, equity and inclusive education.  This paper explores how content, method, material and assessment can be differentiated in a Reading Comprehension English as a Second Language class. The issues in this paper are based on the social development theory as propounded by Vygotsky (1978)

Keywords: Differentiation, ESL, Inclusive Education, Reading Comprehension


The focus of this study was on competitive strategies that firms adopt in the Kenya beverage industry in order to create above average performance. The fundamental basis of above industry performance is sustainable competitive advantage which is either created by low cost or differentiation strategy. The study aimed at establishing the generic strategies food and beverage firms in Kenya employ for sustainable competitive advantage. This research entailed a descriptive study design. Descriptive design uses a set of scientific methods to collect raw data and create data structures that are used to describe the existing characteristics of a defined target population. This study sought to do that among the F & B firms in Kenya. The study population consisted of 138 food and beverage manufacturing firms in Kenya registered with the Kenya Association of Manufacturers (KAM) by 2011. The data was tested for central tendency and dispersion after confirmation of normal distribution by appropriate tests of normality. Since the sample size was 32 (over the minimum 30 required for statistical analysis), regression analysis was carried out and interpretation of results of tests of hypothesis done. The research showed that 56.2 percent of the firms embrace duo strategies of cost leadership and differentiation simultaneously while 25 percent were exclusively on cost leadership and 18.8 percent were exclusively using differentiation. The use of dual strategies is a company survival tactic in terms of diversification of risks especially in very competitive environments like that of the Kenyan F&B industry. Results from Pearson’s rank correlation coefficient between the dependent variable Y and the independent variables X1 and X2 gave coefficients of 0.653 and 0.279 respectively which was an indication of positive correlation.

Keywords: Competitive Advantage, Cost Leadership, Differentiation, Generic Strategies