Vacuity coefficient and diet in Clarias jaensis (Boulenger, 1909) in the Mbô floodplain (Cameroon) (Published)
The Diet of Clarias jaensis was studied in the floodplain of Mbô in Cameroon. In order to reduce over-exploitation through knowledge of the food habits, 230 fish caught by artisanal fishing methods were collected monthly between November 2016 and September 2017 in three sites (Menoua, Nkam and flooded ponds). The digestive tract dissection was made according to the standard method. The standard length and total weight of specimens ranged from 10.50 to 47.50 cm and between 9.99 and 1165.59 g respectively. Overall, 43 stomachs were empty with a general vacuity coefficient of 18.69%. It varied between 16.85 and 26.08%, respectively between the dry and rainy seasons, and then by 24.00; 11.43 and 26.00% respectively in the Menoua, Nkam and flooded ponds. The diet characterized on the basis of occurrence and numerical percentages, having varied from one season to another. Insect-dominated animal organic matter was significantly (p < 0.001) higher (73.54%) compared to plant matter (36.59%) and detritus (24.09%). The food spectrum of C. jaensis, with 9 items, showed that it was an omnivorous species with an insectivorous tendency.
Obesity is an Eating Disorder Not a Disease (Published)
Blood group diet research is gaining popularity among scientists and they are exploring new reasons to preferences of diet in four blood group type individuals. The concept of balanced diet and nutrition seems not to be working properly because diseases like obesity, diabetes, CVD, and cancer are causing millions of deaths each year in the world. Many scientists still did not pay any attention to the strong correlation between blood group diet and diseases except few in the world. There are strong evidences that these four blood group individuals have different taste buds which are the bases for selection of foods which ultimately become nutrition of that individual. A very nutritious food if not selected by a person having a particular blood group will provide no any nutrition to that particular individual. Blood group “A” has bland, “B” has sweet, “O” has saltish, and “AB” has bitter & astringent taste buds. Distribution of blood group types in different regions of the world indicates that there are strong variations in blood group diet because all four blood group types have four different types of tissues (A- nervous, B-epithelial, O-muscular and AB-connective). Macro and micronutrients are also specific to these blood group types (A-Zinc & Magnesium, B-Iron, O-Iodine and AB need additional calcium). Pakistan has blood groups population as “B” 36%, “O” 33%, “A” 21%, and “AB” 9%. USDA Diet pyramids were designed to guide about the diet of Human beings living in different regions of the world. But these diet pyramids are no more valid because of the reason that they are nutritionally and biochemically unsound, but still in many countries these pyramids are being used for the assessment of diet without any positive effects. A diet pyramid based on blood groups is designed to guide about the diet of individuals based on blood groups. Diet charts formulated for four blood group types are based on scientific correlation to prevent diseases and remain healthy.
Objective: Vitamin D deficiency and obesity are widely spread and were associated with chronic diseases. The goal of our study is to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in obese individuals and its association with the metabolic parameter. Method:A cross sectional study of individuals attending diet center located in Taif, Saudi Arabia, conducted between October 2015 and June 2016. We included those with BMI >25 and have vitamin D level. Vitamin D ≤ 20 ng/ml was considered to be deficient. Result:A total of 148 participants were enrolled with a mean age of 36 years, mainly female and married .The mean weight was 95.9 kg, mean BMI of 37.3 Kg/m2, 94.6% were obese, and the mean vitamin D level was 15.7. Compared to those who are vitamin D sufficient ,those who are deficient were more likely to have class III obesity (p 0.891), exercise <150 min per week (p 0.453), have asthma (P 0.149), have higher mean total cholesterol level (p 0.310) and higher mean fasting blood glucose (p 0.632). Partial correlation adjusting for age, gender, exercise, diabetes, and hypertension showed non-significant negative correlation between vitamin D and BMI (r -.121, p0.202), vitamin D and cholesterol (r -.039, p 0.678) and vitamin D and blood glucose (r -.122, p 0.198).Conclusion: Non-significant negative correlation was found between BMI and vitamin D level, the average vitamin D level in overweight group was 21 ng/ml while the average in obese class 3 was 15 ng/ml.