Sufis in Indonesia spread their ideology across the Indonesian Islands through trading, marriages, and Sufism teaching. They came to Indonesia through Sumatra Islands and then spread to other Islands in the west to the eastern part of Indonesia. However, the Sufism diaspora in Indonesia is limited to known, particularly the well-known Sufis and their roles in each island. Their origin and roles have also long been in debate due to a lack of documented resources. Through the historiography method, we studied the origin and the diaspora of Sufis in Indonesia islands in Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, and Maluku islands and their roles in spreading Sufism in those islands. We found that number of well-known Sufis from Middles East came to Indonesia through Sumatera Islands around the sixth century. From Sumatera island, they spread to other islands in the eastern part of Indonesia. We suspect that all of them taught Sufism to Muslim communities in all islands trading and marriage interaction. A number of artifacts which are resembled West Sumatra artifacts can be found in Java, Sulawesi, and Maluku islands. That evidence proves that the Sufis have contributed significantly to religious and social development in Indonesia.
In Crescent (2003), Abu Jaber questions the meaning of identity in relation to exile. Sirine suspects if Hanif is drawn to the American or the Iraqi side of her, which immediately fractures identity into two conflicting aspects. She herself questions her identity as an Arab American. She wants to know which part of her identity defines her the most as she finds herself on the borderline between who she is and the way she appeals to Han. Her romance with Han opens her eyes to questions such as: Does she belong better in the Middle East where flavours, scents, pictures, and stories seem to be pulling her? Is she too American for Han? Do exiled people in this situation live in imaginary homes, or does guilt, as in Han’s case, become a defining factor that determines their hyphenated identities? This article addresses these questions. It examines how the notion of hyphenated identities inform the characters’ decisions and anxieties in the novel. What does the hyphen signify? In what ways can the novel be understood as a negation or an assertion of self-divided identity? In what ways does it celebrate and represent this hyphen that determines the diasporic condition.
This article describes the potential roles of diaspora community in Indonesia and Taiwan relations. Diaspora community is important to Indonesia and Taiwan relations in the context of people to people and business to business relations as back bone of Indonesia and Taiwan relations since there is no diplomatic relations between Indonesia and Taiwan. Indonesian diaspora has potential roles in number, and Taiwanese diaspora (overseas Chinese) has potential in investment and trade. However, Indonesian diaspora still handled as non-government organization, while Taiwan already have special institution to handle it in the context of overseas community relations. Diaspora play important roles to spread information and develop positive image of the country, but it still need to improve common understanding between Taiwanese and Indonesian vice versa. This non-government relation may spill over to the higher level relations in term of government relations.
The literature of the Indian diaspora constitutes an important part of the burgeoning field of Anglophone post colonial literature. Diaspora is an emerging word in post colonial literary scenario. Its emergence has produced a radical transformation or ‘paradigm shift’ in literary and cultural studies. The Indian diasporic writers have attained popularity in the last decade because of the theoretical formulations generated by their works. These writers present a blend of culture of their native homeland and the culture of the host land. Diasporic literature helps in bridging the gaps between different countries, glocalizing the global and even in maintaining universal peace. The diasporic writings feature the quest for identity, uprooting and re rooting, insider and outsider syndrome, nostalgia, nagging sense of guilt etc. The process of survival of the diasporic individual involves the struggles and sufferings from “alienation” to “assimilation”. Bharati Mukherjee is an India born Canadian /American writer. She immigrated from her native land i.e. India to USA. She lived in Canada for about fourteen years before finally moving to USA. Her stay in Canada witnessed racist attacks, which are very clearly depicted in her writings. The author of eight highly praised novels, two collections of short stories and a smattering of non- fiction, shows her personal experiences. An immigrant’s life, full of pain, struggle, nostalgia, sense of belongingness, struggle for survival in the alien land, serves as the background of Bharati Mukherjee’s writings. The paper aims to compare two of her short stories, “A Father” and “Fathering”, extracted from her collections titled Darkness and The Middleman and Other Stories, respectively. The objective of this paper is to undertake diasporic perspective including the post colonial approach to achieve the objective.