Tag Archives: diarrhea

Analysis of the Perceptions of Mothers on Hygiene Factors Affecting Diarrhea Occurrence in Enugu State, Nigeria. (Published)

Owing to the fact that perceptions of mothers on the hygiene factors affecting diarrhea occurrence contribute to their level of hygiene practice which may affect the incidence of diarrhea within the families, there arises the need to analyze the perception of mothers on these hygiene factors in Enugu State. The methodology adopted for the study was longitudinal survey design. Schedules were used to collect data on diarrhea among children 0-5 years from seven District Hospitals representing District Health Boards from 2007 to 2016 while questionnaire was used to collect data in respect of perceptions of mothers on hygiene factors. A total of 1110 questionnaire were administered and 1106 collected. Analysis of variance ANOVA was conducted and the study found that the perceptions of mothers on hygiene factors affecting diarrhea occurrence differ very significantly amongst the study locations (p = 0.000). Furthermore, using multiple comparison tests to detect and rank the mothers perception in the different study locations, Enugu District Health Board has the highest perception, followed by Agbani and Udi District Health Boards. Nsukka, Awgu, Isi-Uzo and Enugu-Ezike District Health Boards have very low perceptions. Nsukka and Awgu recorded the highest cases of diarrhea within the period under study. It is recommended that mothers in the area should be educated to maintain high level of personal hygiene of themselves and their children especially areas with very low perceptions. Further study of stools of these children to identify the pathogens responsible for the diarrhea is required

Keywords: Hygiene, Mothers Perception, diarrhea

Genotype, phenotype and virulence genes markers in Escherichia coli: molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility associated with Diarrhoea among children in Babil province, Iraq (Published)

Background:  in Babil there are relatively few studies have been done to revealed and classify diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) strains among children with diarrhea. This study aimed at investigating DEC among children in Babil aged less than 2 years hospitalized. Methods and patients: A total of 200 children with diarrhea and 75 without diarrhea were their stools investigated using culture on Mac­Conkey and EMB agar, and the E. coli isolates were examined for detection of diarrheagenic E. coli types, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. virulence genes detecting using PCR. A multiplex PCR system method was used to detect a species specific gene for E.coli and ten different virulence genes for detection of five pathogroups of DEC namely enteroaggregative- (EAEC), enteropathogenic- (EPEC), enterotoxigenic- (ETEC), enteroinvasive- (EIEC) and enterohemorghagic- Escherichia coli (EHEC). Results: The study has indicated that diarrheagenic E. coli isolates were found mostly in stools of children with diarrhea. DEC diarrhoeagenic E. coli were significantly detected among diarrheic children (44.8%) compared with control children (16.4%). Of the DEC pathotypes examined, EAEC was found in (64.73%), ETEC in (19.5%), EPEC in (10.5%) and EHEC in (5.27%) of diarrheic. Virulence-gene factors in DEC isolated from children with diarrhea and from controls. The distribution of virulence gene was; pCVD432 93.6%, 87.3%; eaeA 64.2%, 8.5%; bfpA 59.1%, 2.05%; stx1 22.8%, 0.8%; stx2 18.6%, 0%; estA1 heat-stable (ST) 8.14%,1.3%; estA2-4 heat-stable (ST) 14.6%, 0.2%; eltB heat-labile (LT) 43.1%, 0.4% in DEC and control children respectively

Conclusion:  This study revealed the high incidence of diarrheagenic E. coli isolates and high prevalent of antimicrobial resistance among normal intestinal E. coli with typical EAEC and typical EPEC predominating. The use of primers for both variants of ST useful to detect the sensitivity for detection of ETEC strains of hospitalized children in Babil.

Keywords: Antibiotic Susceptibility, Antimicrobial-Resistance Genes, Babil, DEC, Diarrheagenic, EAEC., EHEC, EPEC, ETEC, Escherichia Coli, Phylogenetic Grouping, Virulence Genes, diarrhea

Analysis of the Perceptions of Mothers on Hygiene Factors Affecting Diarrhea Occurrence in Enugu State, Nigeria (Published)

Owing to the fact that hygiene of mothers and children has been a critical factor in combating diarrhea which has contributed to high mortality and morbidity in Enugu State, and the fact that perceptions of mothers on the hygiene factors affecting diarrhea occurrence determine their health behavior towards hygiene practices, there arises the need to analyze the perception of mothers on these hygiene factors in Enugu State. The methodology was longitudinal survey design. Schedules were used to collect data on diarrhea among children 0-5 years from seven District Hospitals representing District Health Boards from 2007 to 2016. Questionnaire was used to collect data on perceptions of mothers. A total of 1110 questionnaire were administered and 1106 collected. Analysis of variance ANOVA was conducted and the study found that the perceptions of mothers on hygiene factors affecting diarrhea occurrence differ significantly amongst the study locations (p = 0.000). Furthermore, using multiple comparison tests to detect and rank the mothers perception in the different study locations, Enugu District Health Board has the highest perception, followed by Agbani and Udi. Nsukka, Awgu, Isi-Uzo and Enugu-Ezike District Health Boards have low perceptions. Nsukka and Awgu recorded highest cases of diarrhea within the period under study. Education on high level of personal hygiene of mothers and children is recommended to reduce infant mortality and morbidity. Further study of stools of these children to identify the pathogens responsible for the diarrhea is required.

Keywords: Hygiene, Mothers Perception, diarrhea

Genotype, Phenotype and Virulence Genes Markers in Escherichia Coli: Molecular Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Associated With Diarrhoea among Children in Babil Province, Iraq (Published)

In Babil there are relatively few studies have been done to revealed and classify diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) strains among children with diarrhea. This study aimed at investigating DEC among children in Babil aged less than 2 years hospitalized. A total of 200 children with diarrhea and 75 without diarrhea were their stools investigated using culture on Mac¬Conkey and EMB agar, and the E. coli isolates were examined for detection of diarrheagenic E. coli types, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. virulence genes detecting using PCR. A multiplex PCR system method was used to detect a species specific gene for E.coli and ten different virulence genes for detection of five pathogroups of DEC namely enteroaggregative- (EAEC), enteropathogenic- (EPEC), enterotoxigenic- (ETEC), enteroinvasive- (EIEC) and enterohemorghagic- Escherichia coli (EHEC). The study has indicated that diarrheagenic E. coli isolates were found mostly in stools of children with diarrhea. DEC diarrhoeagenic E. coli were significantly detected among diarrheic children (44.8%) compared with control children (16.4%). Of the DEC pathotypes examined, EAEC was found in (64.73%), ETEC in (19.5%), EPEC in (10.5%) and EHEC in (5.27%) of diarrheic. Virulence-gene factors in DEC isolated from children with diarrhea and from controls. The distribution of virulence gene was; pCVD432 93.6%, 87.3%; eaeA 64.2%, 8.5%; bfpA 59.1%, 2.05%; stx1 22.8%, 0.8%; stx2 18.6%, 0%; estA1 heat-stable (ST) 8.14%,1.3%; estA2-4 heat-stable (ST) 14.6%, 0.2%; eltB heat-labile (LT) 43.1%, 0.4% in DEC and control children respectivel. This study revealed the high incidence of diarrheagenic E. coli isolates and high prevalent of antimicrobial resistance among normal intestinal E. coli with typical EAEC and typical EPEC predominating. The use of primers for both variants of ST useful to detect the sensitivity for detection of ETEC strains of hospitalized children in Babil.

Keywords: Antibiotic Susceptibility, Antimicrobial-Resistance Genes, Babil, DEC, Diarrheagenic, EAEC., EHEC, EPEC, ETEC, Escherichia Coli, Phylogenetic Grouping, Virulence Genes, diarrhea

AN ANALYSIS OF WELL WATER QUALITY AND THE INCIDENCE OF WATER BORNE DISEASES IN EMOHUA COMMUNITIES, RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA (Published)

This study examined well water quality and the incidence of water borne diseases especially diarrhoea in Emohua. To achieve this, health record data was obtained from the general hospital in Emohua. The laboratory procedure of physio-chemical parameters of pH, Turbidity, Total Hardness, Iron, lead and magnesium of well water samples randomly collected among the eight villages of Emohua such as Isiodu, Rumakunde, Rumuche, Mgbuitanwo, Oduoha, Mgbueto, Rumuohia and Elibrada was done and how they relate to the incidence of diarrhea. The multiple regression technique was used to examine the nature of the relationship which exists between well water quality parameters and the incidence of water borne diseases. Findings shows that the pH values of water at Mgbuitanwo is (3.87) and Oduoha (3.51) were slightly acidic, while in Rumuche (6.05)and Rumakunde (6.08), the pH value were alkaline and suitable for consumption. In terms of total hardness, Rumuche (24.024mg/l), Rumuakunde (36.036mg/l) and Rumuohia (28.028mg/l) have slightly hard water. Only Oduoha (108.101mg/l) had moderate hard water. However iron was dictated in the underground water at Mgbueto with a value of 1.621mg/l. Mgbuitanwo had the highest prevalence of diarrhea disease. This is followed by Isiodu and Rumuakunde. The r2 statistics shows that the well water quality parameters of Total Hardness, pH, and magnesium accounted for 65.1% of the incidence of diarrhea in the study area. Specifically, well depth accounted for 39.1% of the pH values of well water and 23.1% of the total hardness of the water in the study area. Strong monitoring and evaluation of well water hygiene, proper construction of the wells as well as awareness creation among residents need due attention.

Keywords: Emohua, acidic, diarrhea, physio-chemical parameters, well water