Tag Archives: Dialect

Linguistic Repertoire of Undergraduates in Ekiti State Tertiary Institutions: Codeswitching and Its Implications (Published)

This study deals with the linguistic repertoire of undergraduates in Ekiti State tertiary institutions. This study also takes a specific interest in examining the linguistic status of the undergraduates in terms of monolingualism, bilingualism and multilingualism. The descriptive design was used for the study. The population for the study were undergraduates’ students from three tertiary institutions in Ekiti State; College of Education, Ikere Ekiti, University of Nsukka, Ikere campus and Crown Polytechnic, Ado Ekiti. The data was collected by administering a structured questionnaire on the selected sample. 180 questionnaires were administered, while 153 questionnaires were returned by the respondent. Five research questions were raised and analysed with SPSS 20. Results of the study revealed that the extent of undergraduates being multilingual was insignificant; about 98% undergraduates were bilingual while a significant number of the undergraduates were not multilingual. Hence, about 1% speak more than two languages, including English as a second language. Furthermore, the extent of code switching and code mixing among the bilingual undergraduates was significant at .038 level of significance. Also, undergraduates tend to code switch from the L1 to the L2 during communication at home as shown by the level of significance being 0.05. Based on the findings of the study, recommendations were made which included, proper implementation of the Language Policy on Education at all levels of education, the administrative resurrection of acculturation programmes in tertiary institutions with emphasis on undergraduates studying Language Education and governments’ intervention in the increase of admission quota of applicants intending studying Nigerian Languages in Nigerian Universities and Colleges of Education.

Keywords: Acculturation, Dialect, Multilingualism, Undergraduates, code-switch, linguistic repertoire

Sounds phenomena in the dialect of Skaka-Al Jouf: its relation to the Modern Standard Arabic (Published)

Investigating and documenting phonetic and phonological development in specific geographical areas of Saudi Arabia may lead to intensive research into the mechanisms of accent variation and change. It is believed that such research has lately been prompted in various areas of the world. The purpose of this study was to investigate a set of phonetic and phonological evolutions observed in North-East Saudi Arabia (NESA) and their linguistic effect and influence extended around the Arabian Peninsula north borders. This research was also concerned with variations identified not only at segmental, but also at supra-segmental level. The geographical and sociological factors of sound changes have been emphasized and identified. The area referred to as North East Saudi Arabia (NESA) includes Al-Jouf region (Sakaka and surrounding regions). This choice of location assisted in narrowing down the study of NESA accents and in comparing the data collected. The focus of this research was on four developed major linguistic phenomena. The study has interpreted and originated these phenomena emphasizing their possible relationship with the Classical Standard Arabic (SA) and Semitic languages. A semi-structured interview format based on a deep review of related literature was developed to collect data from a random sample of Sakakan people (tribal). Mix Methodology employing the descriptive and the historical approaches, to analyze and interpret these linguistic phenomena and to trace their origins and relationship with the SA and Semitic languages. Findings indicated that the relationship between the investigated phenomena and the SA was strong in certain cases and weak in others.

Keywords: Dialect, Standard Arabic; sound; Phenomena

A Phono-Morphological Study on Jin Hua Dialect (Published)

This paper discusses the phono-morphological feature of Jin Hua dialect, a city that is located in the central region of Zhejiang Province, China. Phonologically, the dialect contains 27 consonants and 51 vowels. The consonants ‘R’ and ‘L’ are not distinguished, i.e. all words with the starting consonant ‘R’ are pronounced ‘L’. Phonetic change occurs to nouns whose pronunciations end with /an/; /ia/; /a/; /e/. Precisely, four transition patterns have been confirmed: (I) /an/ → /a/; (II) /ia/ → /uá/, /a/; (III) /a/, /an/, /e/ → //; (IV) /e/ → /á/. Furthermore, vowel nasalisation results from the weakening of nasal-coloring in Wú dialect and appears to be limited to pronouns. Syntactically, the word order of an adverbial phrase is [Adj + Adv], which in standard Chinese would be: [Adv + Adj]. This accidently resembles the Thai language, Vietnamese and French. Deictic, i.e. 来 lái ‘come’ and 去 ‘go’, are extensively employed as modal particles in motion as well as change-of-state constructions. Another dialectal habit comes from the focus particle 添 tiān ‘one more time’. It is often added to the end of the sentence in order to emphasise the utterer’s opinion.

Keywords: Dialect, Morphology, Phonology


The aim of this research is to investigate the assimilation of some consonant sounds in Eghlid, one of the Iranian dialects. There are different kinds of assimilation and this articles pays to total/ progressive as well as partial/ regressive assimilation of some Eghlidian consonant sounds. The approach of this field-based research is comparative, descriptive and analytical, investigating the assimilation of /n/ to /m/ before /b/, the assimilation of /t/ to /s/ in /st/ consonant cluster, the assimilation of /d/ to /z/ in /zd/ consonant cluster, the assimilation of palatal stops // and // to their velar stop counterparts, and the assimilation of /l/ and /r/ to each other. The achieved results show the specific assimilation pattern of Eghlidian dialect with regard to the standard Persian pronunciation. The phonological analysis and the phonetic transcription of examples will be presented as well.

Keywords: Assimilation, Consonant, Dialect, Eghlid, Phonological Processes


There have been speculations among scholars in the past on the reason for the perceptible difference in the tonal pattern of the Abankeleke Igbo. Prominent among these is that there is a feature of the upstep tone in this dialect group especially in Izii and Ezaa dialects that is absent in most other Igbo dialects. This paper therefore sets out to investigate the truth or otherwise of this claim in Izii and Ezaa dialects by analyzing the tone levels operational in these dialects and in the Standard Igbo and to compare them with those of the Standard Igbo. The data are collected through personal interview. Three respondents are randomly selected; one for Izii, Ezaa and Standard Igbo respectively. An adapted version of the Ibadan wordlist of 400 Basic Items was used and the data were recorded electronically. The data were transcribed and analyzed electronically using the Speech Tools Analyzer version 3, 0.1 (1996-2007) and the Phonology Assistant version 2.2 (1995-2005) software packages developed by the Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL) International. The result of the perceptual analysis, which is confirmed by the instrumental analysis reveals that there is a feature of the high raising tone in Izii and Ezaa which is absent in most other Igbo dialects (among other factors) that contributes to the peculiar tonal phenomenon perceptible in the speech form of this dialect group.

Keywords: Acoustic analysis, Dialect, Pitch, Speech form, Tone