Serum Lipids and Glycated Haemoglobin Levels in Pre- and Post- Menopausal Diabetic Subjects in Enugu, Nigeria (Published)
Background: Studies have shown that poorly controlled diabetes mellitus result to significantly deranged lipid profile and atherogenic indexes in diabetic patients, thus they are at increased risk of dyslipidaemias. With respect to age and stages of a diabetic woman’s life, there is much increased risk. Aim: The study was aimed to evaluate the lipid and glycated haemoglobin levels of pre- and post-menopausal women suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: A total of 148 known type 2 diabetic women (60 pre-menopausal and 88 post- menopausal women) and 90 healthy non-diabetic women (40 pre-menopausal and 50 post-menopausal women) were included in the study. HBA1c, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) were determined using standard methods.Findings: This study showed that the HDL-C level was significantly lower (p<0.05) in both groups of diabetic women compared to their respective controls. In pre-menopausal diabetic women, with the exception of LDL-C, other lipid parameters and ratios (TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C) show significantly increased mean results (p<0.05) compared with that of the control. Increased TG, VLDL-C, and atherogenic indexes (TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratios), and reduced HDL-C levels (p<0.05) were the significant lipid alterations found in post-menopausal diabetic women compared to their age-matched controls. Furthermore, the study revealed that TC and HDL-C increased significantly (p<0.05) in post–menopausal diabetic women when compared with pre–menopausal diabetic women. Conversely, VLDL-C and TG levels together with the lipid ratios were found to decrease significantly (p<0.05) in post-menopausal diabetic women when compared with pre-menopausal diabetic women. The study also revealed that in pre-menopausal diabetic subjects HbA1c at p<0.01 correlated with some of the lipid parameters and the atherogenic indexes. Nonetheless, in the post-menopausal diabetic subjects no significant relationships (p>0.05) between HbA1c and all the lipid parameters and ratios were observed.
Conclusion: This finding suggests that early detection and modification of poor glycaemic control and the accompanying specific lipid abnormalities may improve the health of the diabetic subjects.
Factors Influencing Medication Adherence among Patients With Diabetes Mellitus And Hypertension In Nigeria (Published)
Medication non-adherence results in increased morbidity, mortality and financial loss. Reasons for medication non-adherence are multifactorial. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of, and factors contributing to medication non-adherence among patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension attending some secondary and tertiary health care facilities in Lagos, Nigeria. Of the 100 patients, 32% were compliant with their medications. Most (39%) respondents were noncompliant because of lack of funds and cost of medication, 19% due to forgetfulness, 16% because they felt well, and 15% due to non-availability of drugs at the pharmacy. Other reasons for non-compliance include illnesses (9%), side effects of medications (1%) and misinterpretation of prescription (1%). Among the socio-demographic variables studied, only male gender was positively associated with medication compliance. Adherence to anti-diabetics and anti-hypertensives was low. Both health system and patients’ related issues contributed to poor compliance and these should be addressed to improve medication adherence.
Biochemical Evaluation of Harungana Madagascariensis Lam Aqueous Leaf Extract in Diabetic Rats (Published)
Effects of aqueous leaf extract of Harungana madagascariensis Lam. ex Poir (Family: Hypericacea) on alloxan-induced diabetic rats were investigated. 500 mg/kg body weight extract was administered orally twice daily for 7 days. Blood glucose, cholesterol, bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) levels hitherto raised in diabetic rats consequent upon induction of diabetes, were significantly (p<0.05) reduced following administration of the extract, except for ALT (p>0.05) . In contrast, the significant (p<0.05) decrease in plasma protein of the rats injected with alloxan were significantly (p<0.05) increased by administration of the extract compared to diabetic control rats, suggesting membrane structure and integrity of liver cells were restored. Neither alloxan nor the extract had any significant effect on albumin concentration. The results indicate the aqueous extract of Harungana madagascariensis leaf is antihyperglycaemic and antihypercholesterolaemic justifying its folkloric use as a diabetic agent and appears to have the propensity to restore damaged liver cells back to functionality.
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Zinc supplementation on the serum levels of TT4 and TT3 . Zinc concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy in sera of diabetic patients’ type (2) and healthy individuals. The results show a high significant deficiency of zinc concentration (P < 0.001) in diabetic patients when comparison with healthy group. In addition ,our study investigates the effect of zinc oral supplementation on thyroids hormones in diabetics (Type 2) by the use of two control groups ( A:Healthy control ) , and ( B : Diabetic control ) , and C-group treated with zinc supplements for 10 weeks period .The results shows that the elevation of TT4 and TT3 level in C group after the intake of zinc supplementation and this elevation was highly significant (P< 0.001) .
Ethnobotanical Survey Of Medicinal Plants Used For The Treatment Of Diabetes Mellitus In Ekiti South Senatorial District, Nigeria. (Published)
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common deadly disease that affects mankind in both the poor and developed countries of the world. It is rather unfortunate that the number of people suffering from this disease particularly in Nigeria is on the increase. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted to document medicinal plants commonly used for the treatment of DM by the inhabitants of Ekiti South Senatorial Districts of Ekiti State, Nigeria. The study revealed that 30 plant species belonging to 12 families were cited by the respondents as being used in the area for the treatment of DM. Mangifera indica and Alstonia boonei of the families Anacadiaceae and Apocynaceae respectively, were repeatedly mentioned as the two mostly used plants for the treatment of DM in the study area. About 53.33% of the plants cited were reported as being rare, thus further studies on their conservation strategies were suggested.
KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS OF DIABETES MELLITUS: A CASE STUDY OF A LARGE PRIVATE UNIVERSITY IN BOTSWANA. (Published)
This study sought to evaluate awareness and knowledge of diabetes mellitus, an important global disease, among staff at a large private university in Botswana. Findings point to a general lack of awareness and knowledge about the disease among the university staff. Respondents consisted of 63% lecturing and 37% non-lecturing staff. The distribution by gender was roughly 50-50. Overall awareness of diabetes mellitus was 66% of respondents awareness being higher for females at (34%) compared to men’s 32%. Knowledge about the important risk factors for diabetes was low. Knowledge about the important symptoms of the disease was not impressive. This is an important factor in early diagnosis and onset of management. Lack of knowledge about curability of the disease was very high at 85% of respondents. Of the possible pathological effects of the disease, respondents seemed to be more aware of the development blindness than others. These statistics may be indicative of a more distributed problem in country given the fact that such results came from “enlightened” members of the community.