Tag Archives: Development

Electoral Malpractice as a Challenge to Sustainable Development in Nigeria (Published)

This study is a descriptive one. It examines the motives behind electoral malpractice in Nigeria, finds out the factors that aid the act in the study area, and discusses the consequences of electoral malpractice on the country’s sustainable development. It relied on secondary data that were content analysed. The study found that crave for power, attitude of the politicians who see politics as investment, vengeance and preponderance of seeing electoral periods as pay-back times are some of the motives for engaging in electoral malpractice. Additionally, poverty, lack or poor political education, bribery and corruption, and inadequate planning on the part of political parties/candidates are some of the factors responsible for electoral malpractice. The study also found that electoral malpractice slows down development, breeds violence and destroys the image of Nigeria. The study further draws implications of electoral malpractice for the Nigerian state. As ways out of the challenge, there is need for more political education by National Orientation Agency and Independent National Electoral Commission, institution of electoral-courts, and thorough enforcement of the electoral act, making the electoral body truly autonomous and putting of appropriate legislation in place to punish offenders in order to overcome some of the havocs electoral malpractice wrecks in Nigeria.

Keywords: Development, Election, Violence, electoral courts, electoral malpractice

A Historical Analysis of the Introduction, Spread and Impact of Western Education in Southern Taraba Area, 1905 to 2018 (Published)

Education can be construed as a pattern of awareness which determines and influences the behavioural pattern of any given society. It encompasses societal civilization, values, norms and traditions. It is a people’s belief system, system of thought, an instrument through which a society produces and reproduces its kind in the light of what makes one a representation of his/her society. Every society therefore has its own system of education through which cultural transmission and socialization are anchored. Unfortunately, former colonies erroneously consider western education as the only best alternative for all-round development. It is viewed as the basic instrument for civilization, gainful employment, socialization, economic prosperity and development. This conventional assumptions has resulted in the eventual neglect of the traditional education by African societies, Southern Taraba inclusive. This paper therefore examine the process of introduction and spread of western education in Southern Taraba Area. The paper captures issues like the agencies and individuals involved, the impact, challenges encountered and how the challenges can be remedied. Thus, using a multi-disciplinary methodological approach, the study came to the realization that western education has impacted tremendously on the peoples of Southern Taraba Area in the spheres of human, infrastructural, political and socio-economic development.

Keywords: Challenges, Development, Education, Impact, Influence, history, western education

Perception of Stakeholders’ On Empowering Women for Socio-Economic Development in an Enduring Democracy in North- West Nigeria (Published)

The paper examined the stakeholders’ perception on empowering women for socio-economic development in a enduring democracy in Nigeria. Women are also in the capacity to assist government achieve its laudable goals and objectives through public enlightenment and national mobilization campaigns. In general, education wipes away ignorance, political apathy and encourages mutual; understanding and cooperation among the various strata in any given society. The population of this study consisted of all the stakeholders in education that comprised the students, graduates, teachers, school administrators, Ministry personnel, Quality Assurances officers in the North-west zone of Nigeria. The population total was 1970 out of this numbers, 1261 respondents were proportionately selected for the study. Four states were selected out of the seven North-western states using purposive sampling technique. 3 research questions were raised for the study and three (3) objectives, descriptive statistics was used to answer the research questions.. The study concludes that significant association exist between empowerment and socio-economic development of women by stakeholders’ in an enduring democracy in’ Nigeria. It was recommended that   empowerment can successfully be achieved by designing and implementing well planned and organized educational programmes . Women need greater access to educational opportunities, skills acquisition and position of authority for them to be truly empowered.

Keywords: Development, Empowerment, Socio-Economic, Women

Local Content Development in the Oil and Gas Industry in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects (Published)

In the past, the major players in the oil and gas industry in Nigeria were the international oil companies (IOCs). There was inadequate skilled workforce in the industry especially with respect to indigenous participation in the oil and gas projects. Consequently, the IOCs relied heavily on expatriates to carry out projects in the oil and gas industry in Nigeria which ordinarily would have been handled by Nigerians. In order to boost local participation in the oil and gas projects and create more employment opportunities for the locals, the federal government of Nigeria in 2010, enacted the Local Content Act in recognition of the inadequacy of the indigenous human capital development in the oil and gas industry in Nigeria. However, the Local Content development policy of the federal government is without some problems which have affected the effective and efficient implementation of the policy. This paper therefore, examines the local content development policy of the federal government, identifies its problems and prospects, and makes appropriate recommendations.

Keywords: Development, Industry, Nigeria, Oil and Gas, local content

The Nexus between Land Administration System and Land Market Development in Delta State, Nigeria (Published)

One  of the most daunting challenges of urban dwellers today in developing nations is how to promote balance land use that will reduce conflict, abuse, misuse and chaotic location of activities, hence the need for effective land administration system. This study examines the relationship between land administration system and land market development. Using Delta state as a case study, the study adopted a survey research design using a well-structured questionnaire to elicit information from 277 respondents comprising of estate surveyors and Valuers, estate agents/developers and land officers in Asaba, Warri, Sapele and Ughelli in Delta state. Data collected were subjected to statistical analysis with the aid of Statistical package for social science version 21.0. The findings revealed that there is significant relationship between land administration system and land market development in Delta state. It is evident that land administration and land market in the study areas is fraught with various challenges such as market and technical, administrative, cost and legal, financial and bureaucratic challenges. It was also discovered that the identified requirements for effective land administration system were important and indispensable for successful land market operation. The study therefore recommends that the existing policy on land administration should be evaluated to enhance the overall performance of the land administration system in the state; there should the regular updating the land base transaction records to prevent multiple ownership of a parcel; actors in land market should simplify the procedures of transferring land rights; Land transactions should be documented and registered to avoid dispute among land owners and the buyers; government policies and regulations should be strictly enforced as these will enhance land market development in the state; a robust strategy that will ensure long-term sustainable development of an efficient LM is also required for a better and improved land administration that will further enhanced the land market in the State

Keywords: Development, Land market, Urban, land administration

Local Content Development in the Oil and Gas Industry in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects (Published)

In the past, the major players in the oil and gas industry in Nigeria were the international oil companies (IOCs). There was inadequate skilled workforce in the industry especially with respect to indigenous participation in the oil and gas projects. Consequently, the IOCs relied heavily on expatriates to carry out projects in the oil and gas industry in Nigeria which ordinarily would have been handled by Nigerians. In order to boost local participation in the oil and gas projects and create more employment opportunities for the locals, the federal government of Nigeria in 2010, enacted the Local Content Act in recognition of the inadequacy of the indigenous human capital development in the oil and gas industry in Nigeria. However, the Local Content development policy of the federal government is without some problems which have affected the effective and efficient implementation of the policy. This paper therefore, examines the local content development policy of the federal government, identifies its problems and prospects, and makes appropriate recommendations.

Keywords: Content, Development, GAS, Industry, Nigeria, local, oil

Practical Understanding of Learning and Development (Published)

The global competition and swiftness of changes emphasize the importance of human capital within organizations, as well as the swiftness and ways of knowledge gaining of that capital. Learning and development as many refer to it now is one of the most important aspects of our lives and our work. Many people view training as an activity that produces the result or outcome of learning and learning is typically viewed as new knowledge, skills and competencies or abilities. In this report we will discuss the training and development and its importance now a day for all organizations in order to achieve and reach their objectives and goals through set a training plan and then translate this plan to real training courses for each employee to refine and improve their skills, knowledge…est. Also we will talk about the several types and methods of training and development. Finally, how much value or interest that this training and development can offer to the employees and the company itself.

Keywords: Development, Human Resources, Learning, Management, Training

Population and Development in Nigeria: Contemporary Issues and Prospects (Published)

This paper x-rays contemporary legal issues and problems associated with population and development in Nigeria. A potpourri of materials namely: statutes, textbooks, journals, articles, reports, case laws, and internet materials have been consulted in the course of writing this paper. The paper states that several studies have revealed that   the growth of any nation is basically centered on its developmental strides and policies. The relationship between population and development is very dynamic in nature. A country is regarded as being developed when the institutional framework, policies and structures are functional and effective. Over population affects the environment and in turn, hampers its developmental growth. The environment experiences crisis when its economic growth skyrockets its capacity limit. Developing countries like Nigeria and some other countries in the Sub-Saharan region face an uphill task in trying to manage their ever increasing populace. The paper also examined population policies in Nigeria and reveals a critical gap between population and development and calls for legal and institutional reforms that will bring about an effective enforcement of population and development policies in Nigeria.

Keywords: Development, Issues, Nigeria, Population, Prospects

Role of Media and ICT in Empowering Kenyan Rural Communities with Information on Development (Published)

Information is the key to democracy. Information technology measures social integration, participation and performance valuables in any development. Emerging digital techniques, new network alternatives including intelligent networks, high bandwidth communication technology and state-of-the-art software for network functions and services, are the new technology trends evident in the development of electronic communication systems. Yet most of world’s population remains untouched by this revolution. The paper discusses the need to focus on Kenyan rural communities to empower them to access information, knowledge and poverty alleviation among them by deploying the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Analyses the factors preventing rural communities from reaping the benefits of ICT s, Kenyan initiatives to overcome the factors, ways and means of poverty alleviation and sustainable development; identifies the bottlenecks and solutions, and lessons learned. The paper will analyze the integration of media and technology in pushing development agenda. Perhaps the inclination of ICT and media as an information resource will bring enormous and diversification in developmental models.

Keywords: Development, ICT, Kenya, Media, Rural

Developing Sustainability by Using Hydrological/Water Quality Model (Published)

A framework is built, wherein hydrological/water quality model is used to measure watershed sustainability. For this framework, watershed sustainability has been defined and quantified by defining social, environmental and biodiversity indicators. By providing weightage to these indicators, a “River Basin Sustainability Index” is built. The watershed sustainability is then calculated based on the concepts of reliability, resilience and vulnerability. The framework is then applied to a case study, where, based on watershed management principles, four land use scenarios are created in GIS. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used as a hydrology/water quality model. Based on the results the land uses are ranked for sustainability and policy implications have been discussed. This results show that land use (both type and location) impact watershed sustainability. The existing land use is weak in environmental sustainability. Also, riparian zones play a critical role in watershed sustainability, although beyond certain width their contribution is not significant.

Keywords: Development, Framework, Reliability, Resilience, Sustainability, Vulnerability, Watershed

The Importance of Vocational and Technical Education in Nigeria’s Development (Published)

There can be no sustainable national development without vocational and technical education, and there can be no vocational and technical education without skills acquisition. The issue of sustainable national development is not a one-day event, but constant or continuous process that affects the citizens positively. The paper x-rayed the peculiar characteristics of vocational and technical education in providing necessary skills to the populace for sustainable national development. The conceptual clarification of vocational education, technical education, vocational and technical education, and sustainable national development were considered. The paper further discussed a brief history of vocational and technical education in Nigeria, during the pre-colonial, colonial and the post-colonial era. The paper examines the importance of vocational and technical education in Nigeria development. It further highlighted the role of vocational and technical education in sustainable national development. The paper concluded that non-acquisition of saleable skills has been a major factor in the countries under development and high rates of poverty and other social vices. Therefore, VTE as the type of education with these values should be recognized and taken serious for sustainable national development to strive.

 

Keywords: Development, Education, Nigeria, Technical, Vocational

The Role of Women in Agricultural Economy in Ethiopia: The Case of Aira Woreda in Western Wollega Zone, Oromiya Regional State (Published)

Women play active role in almost all aspects of agricultural activities across the world. However, their contribution is underestimated due to the deep rooted gender based division of labour in developing countries. So the study concentrated on the reflection of women’s role in agricultural economy in Aira woreda western wollega zone Oromiya regional state. The objective of this study is to assess the evidence based role of women in development in general and agricultural economy in particular. The study was conducted by using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The relevant data collection tools such as interview, Focus group discussion guideline and questionnaires were used.  Using these method relevant data was gathered and these data were analyzed in descriptive way. It was found that women’s role is more important for economic development in general and agricultural development in particular. These findings also indicate that women play a significant role in almost all aspects of agricultural activities such as crop production, animal husbandry, domestic and other income generating activities. Finally the study has concluded that the role of women is important for economic development in general and effective development of agricultural sector in particular. Based on the findings the researcher recommends that, education is the most important tools to aware the existing social barriers that undermine the role of women in agricultural activities and also multifaceted efforts have to be made to avoid harmful traditional perceptions that hinder the participation of women in agricultural sector.

Keywords: Development, Gender, Women, agriculture activities

Evaluation of Corruption and Conflict in Nigerian Oil Industry: Imperative for Sustainable Development (Published)

Not only can corruption keep African states in cycles of violence by funding armed groups and criminal networks, it can also prevent the development of effective institutions of governance. When money and resources are diverted by corrupt African officials to private accounts and businesses instead of being channeled to inclusive citizen’s needs, the clock turns back on social and economic development. This, in turn, can create further instability. In these ways, corruption, conflict and sustainable development are linked. Since its return to civil rule in May 1999, the country, especially the oil producing Niger Delta region, has drifted from one violent conflict to another, often with devastating consequences on human life and socio-economic development. Most analysts blame this violence on the many injustices perpetrated by the central authorities (especially the inadequacies of the current revenue sharing formula that denies oil bearing states their dues). The paper examines the relationship between corruption in oil sector, conflict and sustainable development and was anchored on resource curse theory. This study recommends amongst others that the award of oil block, contract, and licensing and production right should follow due process and transparent process. Also that the awarding of oil block to individuals should be discourage rather they should be awarded to corporate entities with wide spread ownership.

Keywords: Conflict, Corruption, Development, Violence, oil industry

Rural Development Processes and Emerging Challenges in Nigeria (Published)

The central aim of this paper is to highlight the rural development processes in Nigeria and identify the emerging challenges that impede sustainable rural development in the country. In achieving its aim, the paper clarified the concept of development and rural development as postulated by various scholars. It examines the modernization and dependency theoretical underpinning of the concepts.  The study analyses secondary and empirical sources of data through qualitative methods. The paper posits that the rural areas have constituted majority of the nation’s population and serve as a base for food production. The paper argues that though various rural development policies have been initiated in Nigeria, the conditions of the rural areas has not changed much since independence.  Rather, development policies in Nigeria have been tilted toward the urban areas while the rural areas live in extreme poverty and lack basic health, educational and social infrastructures. It identifies emerging challenges such as corruption and mismanagement of resources, poor policy implementation, famers- herders conflicts and lack of autonomy of the local governments. The study recommends more concerted efforts in implementing rural developments projects, punishment of corrupt public officials, effective budget monitoring, provision of security and conflict resolution mechanisms and participation of the rural populace in development projects.

Keywords: Challenges, Development, Emerging, Processes, Rural

Economic History of Dale District since 1941 to 1991, Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia (Published)

The major goal of this study is to reconstruct the economic history of Dale District, 1941-1991. To achieve this goal, an attempt was made to collect qualitative data source from local elders, officer and archives of the administration office. The written documents which have relation with the study also examined and cross checked. The Dale District practices different economic activities like Agriculture which is based on cereal crop farming and cash crop farming. Coffee is mainly grown under the shade of tree (shade or forest coffee), either within forest or forest like environments, or in farming systems that in corporate specific shade plants usually indigenous (native) trees, time fruit trees and other crop plants. The high profitability of chat has also motivated farmers to hire labor for chat production in the district.  Other economic activities like animal husbandry, hand craft technology and trade are common in the District. However agriculture was based on traditional farming system. The infrastructural development in dale District is a recent phenomenon. Un proportional service facilities and infrastructures compared with the high number of population found in the District. The main basic infrastructure like road, school, health centers, electric service, water supply has been established in the District before three decades but did not showed rapid economic development in the District.

Keywords: Dale Wereda, Development, Economy, Infrastructure, history

Selected Components of Tax Revenue and Educational Development in Nigeria (Published)

This study investigated the relationship between some selected components of tax revenue and educational development in Nigeria for the period 2010 to 2018. The study adopted education tax and value added tax as the independent variables, while educational development taken as government spending on education (excluding recurrent expenditure) was used as the dependent variable. Secondary data was collected from the CBN, FIRS, and MOE. The data analysis technique adopted for the study was the multiple regression analysis using the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method. The results revealed that there was positive relationship between value added tax, education tax and education development. However, the relationship was not statistically significant with the implication that the effect of the selected tax revenue components on educational development was weak. Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that the contribution of education tax to the development of the education sector is not having the desired effect on the sector. Furthermore, value added tax revenue as expected is not an important contributor to education development. It is suggested that more revenue from various tax funds be channeled to the education sector as human capital development is key to national development. The study thus recommended that the proportion of value added tax revenue channeled towards education development should be increased as deficits in education development are very high. It is also recommended that the education tax be increased from the present 2% to 5% in order to contribute more significantly to education development.

Keywords: Development, Education, Revenue, Tax, Value added

Evaluation of Corruption and Conflict in Nigerian Oil Industry: Imperative for Sustainable Development (Published)

Not only can corruption keep African states in cycles of violence by funding armed groups and criminal networks, it can also prevent the development of effective institutions of governance. When money and resources are diverted by corrupt African officials to private accounts and businesses instead of being channeled to inclusive citizen’s needs, the clock turns back on social and economic development. This, in turn, can create further instability. In these ways, corruption, conflict and sustainable development are linked. Since its return to civil rule in May 1999, the country, especially the oil producing Niger Delta region, has drifted from one violent conflict to another, often with devastating consequences on human life and socio-economic development. Most analysts blame this violence on the many injustices perpetrated by the central authorities (especially the inadequacies of the current revenue sharing formula that denies oil bearing states their dues). The paper examines the relationship between corruption in oil sector, conflict and sustainable development and was anchored on resource curse theory. This study recommends amongst others that the award of oil block, contract, and licensing and production right should follow due process and transparent process. Also that the awarding of oil block to individuals should be discourage rather they should be awarded to corporate entities with wide spread ownership.

Keywords: Conflict, Corruption, Development, Violence, oil industry

The Development of natural antioxidant Active Ehuru Polysulfone Film and its effect in lipid oil stabilization (Published)

A natural antioxidative Monodora myristica (Ehuru) active film package for lipid food preservation was produced by cast method.  0 – 5% w/w ehuru antioxidant extract (EAE) was incorporated into PSF film.   Into another PSF resin was incorporated 5% alpha tocopherol (AT) and another, a blend of (EAE)/ α-tocopherol (AT). Tetrahydrofuran (THF) and N-methylpyrrolidinone (NMP), were used as solution solvent, in ratio 3:1. The radical scavenging abilities of the developed films were analyzed and compared to the pure PSF (control) using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) solution.  Finally, the ability of the films to stabilize peanut oil against oxidation were tested by measuring some rancidity analysis of the actively packaged peanut oil. The result showed that the radical scavenging properties of the active films increase with concentration of EAE infused inside the film increased from (0% – 5%), and 5% EAE incorporation created a compact film without any optical noticeable pore. This was confirmed by the permeation rate of oxygen across the film which decreased from (0.1079-0.0277) m3/s as concentration EAE increased. Generally, results showed that natural antioxidant derived from Ehuru seeds (EAE) exhibited the best delay of lipid hydrolyses by exhibiting the shortest oxidation time. It was also deduced that concentration between 2.5 and 5% could comfortably be used to produce the active package because their effect on oxidation of lipid oil are not significantly different from each other 7.85± 1.13 and 7.27± 1.69 respectively. Results obtained from the oxidative analysis confirmed the effectiveness of the active film of natural antioxidant derived from Ehuru seeds (EAE) in slowing down lipid hydrolysis and increasing the oxidative stability of peanut oil, having the smallest PV of 7.35±2.00 and the smallest P-AnV of 18.12± 1.57

Keywords: Development, Stabilization, active ehuru polysulfone film, lipid, natural antioxidant, oil

Insurance Sector Development and Economic Growth in Nigeria: An empirical analysis (Published)

This study investigated the relationship between insurance sector development and economic growth in Nigeria using data from 2001 to 2017. The study adopted gross domestic product (GDP) as proxy for economic growth and the response variable, while total insurance investment (INV), total insurance premium (PRE), and total insurance claims (CLA) were used as proxies for insurance sector development and the predictive variables. Secondary time series data for the variables were sourced from annual reports of Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Statistical Bulletins and the Nigerian Insurance Digest covering the period 2001 to 2017. The study employed descriptive statistics and multiple regression technique based on the E-views 9.0 software as methods of data analysis. The empirical results showed that total insurance investment, total insurance premium and total insurance claims had positive effect on gross domestic product, proxy for economic growth (total insurance investment and total insurance premium were significant at 5% level, while total insurance claims, at 19% level, was not significant). This study has established that the insurance sector development contributed meaningfully to economic growth in Nigeria. Based on the findings this study recommended that insurance policies be made mandatory for individuals and business organizations to encourage and protect investors as well as ensure sustained economic growth. Besides, the regulatory authorities should put in place policies to enforce transparent and efficient management of funds by insurers; while the latter should diversify their portfolio of investments to boost returns and their ability in claims payment.

Keywords: Development, claims, economic growth; insurance; investment; premium

Ensure Inclusive and Equitable Quality Education and Promote Lifelong Learning Opportunities for Achieving Sustainable Development Goals: The Role of Libraries (Published)

This paper focuses on the fourth agenda of SDG, which centers round the quality of education. The library acts as the hub of academic activities.  Therefore, this paper attempts to highlight information ecology, Information and knowledge society, highlighting the role of Library and Information centers in meeting SDGs. The paper highlighted some challenges facing libraries and librarians in actualizing Sustainable Development Goals. The paper calls upon the administrators, policy makers, managers, research scholars and the community members to use the library resources and services to act as a platform in meeting the SDGs.

Keywords: Development, Goals, Libraries, equitable, opportunities sustainable, quality education lifelong learning