Tag Archives: Development

The Importance of Vocational and Technical Education in Nigeria’s Development (Published)

There can be no sustainable national development without vocational and technical education, and there can be no vocational and technical education without skills acquisition. The issue of sustainable national development is not a one-day event, but constant or continuous process that affects the citizens positively. The paper x-rayed the peculiar characteristics of vocational and technical education in providing necessary skills to the populace for sustainable national development. The conceptual clarification of vocational education, technical education, vocational and technical education, and sustainable national development were considered. The paper further discussed a brief history of vocational and technical education in Nigeria, during the pre-colonial, colonial and the post-colonial era. The paper examines the importance of vocational and technical education in Nigeria development. It further highlighted the role of vocational and technical education in sustainable national development. The paper concluded that non-acquisition of saleable skills has been a major factor in the countries under development and high rates of poverty and other social vices. Therefore, VTE as the type of education with these values should be recognized and taken serious for sustainable national development to strive.

 

Keywords: Development, Education, Nigeria, Technical, Vocational

The Role of Women in Agricultural Economy in Ethiopia: The Case of Aira Woreda in Western Wollega Zone, Oromiya Regional State (Published)

Women play active role in almost all aspects of agricultural activities across the world. However, their contribution is underestimated due to the deep rooted gender based division of labour in developing countries. So the study concentrated on the reflection of women’s role in agricultural economy in Aira woreda western wollega zone Oromiya regional state. The objective of this study is to assess the evidence based role of women in development in general and agricultural economy in particular. The study was conducted by using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The relevant data collection tools such as interview, Focus group discussion guideline and questionnaires were used.  Using these method relevant data was gathered and these data were analyzed in descriptive way. It was found that women’s role is more important for economic development in general and agricultural development in particular. These findings also indicate that women play a significant role in almost all aspects of agricultural activities such as crop production, animal husbandry, domestic and other income generating activities. Finally the study has concluded that the role of women is important for economic development in general and effective development of agricultural sector in particular. Based on the findings the researcher recommends that, education is the most important tools to aware the existing social barriers that undermine the role of women in agricultural activities and also multifaceted efforts have to be made to avoid harmful traditional perceptions that hinder the participation of women in agricultural sector.

Keywords: Development, Gender, Women, agriculture activities

Evaluation of Corruption and Conflict in Nigerian Oil Industry: Imperative for Sustainable Development (Published)

Not only can corruption keep African states in cycles of violence by funding armed groups and criminal networks, it can also prevent the development of effective institutions of governance. When money and resources are diverted by corrupt African officials to private accounts and businesses instead of being channeled to inclusive citizen’s needs, the clock turns back on social and economic development. This, in turn, can create further instability. In these ways, corruption, conflict and sustainable development are linked. Since its return to civil rule in May 1999, the country, especially the oil producing Niger Delta region, has drifted from one violent conflict to another, often with devastating consequences on human life and socio-economic development. Most analysts blame this violence on the many injustices perpetrated by the central authorities (especially the inadequacies of the current revenue sharing formula that denies oil bearing states their dues). The paper examines the relationship between corruption in oil sector, conflict and sustainable development and was anchored on resource curse theory. This study recommends amongst others that the award of oil block, contract, and licensing and production right should follow due process and transparent process. Also that the awarding of oil block to individuals should be discourage rather they should be awarded to corporate entities with wide spread ownership.

Keywords: Conflict, Corruption, Development, Violence, oil industry

Rural Development Processes and Emerging Challenges in Nigeria (Published)

The central aim of this paper is to highlight the rural development processes in Nigeria and identify the emerging challenges that impede sustainable rural development in the country. In achieving its aim, the paper clarified the concept of development and rural development as postulated by various scholars. It examines the modernization and dependency theoretical underpinning of the concepts.  The study analyses secondary and empirical sources of data through qualitative methods. The paper posits that the rural areas have constituted majority of the nation’s population and serve as a base for food production. The paper argues that though various rural development policies have been initiated in Nigeria, the conditions of the rural areas has not changed much since independence.  Rather, development policies in Nigeria have been tilted toward the urban areas while the rural areas live in extreme poverty and lack basic health, educational and social infrastructures. It identifies emerging challenges such as corruption and mismanagement of resources, poor policy implementation, famers- herders conflicts and lack of autonomy of the local governments. The study recommends more concerted efforts in implementing rural developments projects, punishment of corrupt public officials, effective budget monitoring, provision of security and conflict resolution mechanisms and participation of the rural populace in development projects.

Keywords: Challenges, Development, Emerging, Processes, Rural

Economic History of Dale District since 1941 to 1991, Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia (Published)

The major goal of this study is to reconstruct the economic history of Dale District, 1941-1991. To achieve this goal, an attempt was made to collect qualitative data source from local elders, officer and archives of the administration office. The written documents which have relation with the study also examined and cross checked. The Dale District practices different economic activities like Agriculture which is based on cereal crop farming and cash crop farming. Coffee is mainly grown under the shade of tree (shade or forest coffee), either within forest or forest like environments, or in farming systems that in corporate specific shade plants usually indigenous (native) trees, time fruit trees and other crop plants. The high profitability of chat has also motivated farmers to hire labor for chat production in the district.  Other economic activities like animal husbandry, hand craft technology and trade are common in the District. However agriculture was based on traditional farming system. The infrastructural development in dale District is a recent phenomenon. Un proportional service facilities and infrastructures compared with the high number of population found in the District. The main basic infrastructure like road, school, health centers, electric service, water supply has been established in the District before three decades but did not showed rapid economic development in the District.

Keywords: Dale Wereda, Development, Economy, Infrastructure, history

Selected Components of Tax Revenue and Educational Development in Nigeria (Published)

This study investigated the relationship between some selected components of tax revenue and educational development in Nigeria for the period 2010 to 2018. The study adopted education tax and value added tax as the independent variables, while educational development taken as government spending on education (excluding recurrent expenditure) was used as the dependent variable. Secondary data was collected from the CBN, FIRS, and MOE. The data analysis technique adopted for the study was the multiple regression analysis using the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method. The results revealed that there was positive relationship between value added tax, education tax and education development. However, the relationship was not statistically significant with the implication that the effect of the selected tax revenue components on educational development was weak. Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that the contribution of education tax to the development of the education sector is not having the desired effect on the sector. Furthermore, value added tax revenue as expected is not an important contributor to education development. It is suggested that more revenue from various tax funds be channeled to the education sector as human capital development is key to national development. The study thus recommended that the proportion of value added tax revenue channeled towards education development should be increased as deficits in education development are very high. It is also recommended that the education tax be increased from the present 2% to 5% in order to contribute more significantly to education development.

Keywords: Development, Education, Revenue, Tax, Value added

Evaluation of Corruption and Conflict in Nigerian Oil Industry: Imperative for Sustainable Development (Published)

Not only can corruption keep African states in cycles of violence by funding armed groups and criminal networks, it can also prevent the development of effective institutions of governance. When money and resources are diverted by corrupt African officials to private accounts and businesses instead of being channeled to inclusive citizen’s needs, the clock turns back on social and economic development. This, in turn, can create further instability. In these ways, corruption, conflict and sustainable development are linked. Since its return to civil rule in May 1999, the country, especially the oil producing Niger Delta region, has drifted from one violent conflict to another, often with devastating consequences on human life and socio-economic development. Most analysts blame this violence on the many injustices perpetrated by the central authorities (especially the inadequacies of the current revenue sharing formula that denies oil bearing states their dues). The paper examines the relationship between corruption in oil sector, conflict and sustainable development and was anchored on resource curse theory. This study recommends amongst others that the award of oil block, contract, and licensing and production right should follow due process and transparent process. Also that the awarding of oil block to individuals should be discourage rather they should be awarded to corporate entities with wide spread ownership.

Keywords: Conflict, Corruption, Development, Violence, oil industry

The Development of natural antioxidant Active Ehuru Polysulfone Film and its effect in lipid oil stabilization (Published)

A natural antioxidative Monodora myristica (Ehuru) active film package for lipid food preservation was produced by cast method.  0 – 5% w/w ehuru antioxidant extract (EAE) was incorporated into PSF film.   Into another PSF resin was incorporated 5% alpha tocopherol (AT) and another, a blend of (EAE)/ α-tocopherol (AT). Tetrahydrofuran (THF) and N-methylpyrrolidinone (NMP), were used as solution solvent, in ratio 3:1. The radical scavenging abilities of the developed films were analyzed and compared to the pure PSF (control) using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) solution.  Finally, the ability of the films to stabilize peanut oil against oxidation were tested by measuring some rancidity analysis of the actively packaged peanut oil. The result showed that the radical scavenging properties of the active films increase with concentration of EAE infused inside the film increased from (0% – 5%), and 5% EAE incorporation created a compact film without any optical noticeable pore. This was confirmed by the permeation rate of oxygen across the film which decreased from (0.1079-0.0277) m3/s as concentration EAE increased. Generally, results showed that natural antioxidant derived from Ehuru seeds (EAE) exhibited the best delay of lipid hydrolyses by exhibiting the shortest oxidation time. It was also deduced that concentration between 2.5 and 5% could comfortably be used to produce the active package because their effect on oxidation of lipid oil are not significantly different from each other 7.85± 1.13 and 7.27± 1.69 respectively. Results obtained from the oxidative analysis confirmed the effectiveness of the active film of natural antioxidant derived from Ehuru seeds (EAE) in slowing down lipid hydrolysis and increasing the oxidative stability of peanut oil, having the smallest PV of 7.35±2.00 and the smallest P-AnV of 18.12± 1.57

Keywords: Development, Stabilization, active ehuru polysulfone film, lipid, natural antioxidant, oil

Insurance Sector Development and Economic Growth in Nigeria: An empirical analysis (Published)

This study investigated the relationship between insurance sector development and economic growth in Nigeria using data from 2001 to 2017. The study adopted gross domestic product (GDP) as proxy for economic growth and the response variable, while total insurance investment (INV), total insurance premium (PRE), and total insurance claims (CLA) were used as proxies for insurance sector development and the predictive variables. Secondary time series data for the variables were sourced from annual reports of Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Statistical Bulletins and the Nigerian Insurance Digest covering the period 2001 to 2017. The study employed descriptive statistics and multiple regression technique based on the E-views 9.0 software as methods of data analysis. The empirical results showed that total insurance investment, total insurance premium and total insurance claims had positive effect on gross domestic product, proxy for economic growth (total insurance investment and total insurance premium were significant at 5% level, while total insurance claims, at 19% level, was not significant). This study has established that the insurance sector development contributed meaningfully to economic growth in Nigeria. Based on the findings this study recommended that insurance policies be made mandatory for individuals and business organizations to encourage and protect investors as well as ensure sustained economic growth. Besides, the regulatory authorities should put in place policies to enforce transparent and efficient management of funds by insurers; while the latter should diversify their portfolio of investments to boost returns and their ability in claims payment.

Keywords: Development, claims, economic growth; insurance; investment; premium

Ensure Inclusive and Equitable Quality Education and Promote Lifelong Learning Opportunities for Achieving Sustainable Development Goals: The Role of Libraries (Published)

This paper focuses on the fourth agenda of SDG, which centers round the quality of education. The library acts as the hub of academic activities.  Therefore, this paper attempts to highlight information ecology, Information and knowledge society, highlighting the role of Library and Information centers in meeting SDGs. The paper highlighted some challenges facing libraries and librarians in actualizing Sustainable Development Goals. The paper calls upon the administrators, policy makers, managers, research scholars and the community members to use the library resources and services to act as a platform in meeting the SDGs.

Keywords: Development, Goals, Libraries, equitable, opportunities sustainable, quality education lifelong learning

Development of Dress Patterns for Women with Figure Flaws in Anambra State (Published)

The aim of this study was to produce dress patterns for women with figure flaws in Anambra State. A sample of ninety teaching and non-teaching female staff with obvious figure flaws falling into 3-size categories was purposively selected for the study. The study involved taking body measurements, drafting, adapting, altering, cutting out and assembling the garment pieces. After which garments were modeled by the models. Judges and the models assessed the clothing fit and wearing comfort. The obtained data from the assessment instruments were analyzed using mean. Findings from the study showed that the widest distribution of values indicative of figure flaws were found in the bust, waist, and hips. The widest alterations to the drafted patterns related to the hips, waist and bust. The average rating of the clothing fit and comfort by the judges and models were satisfactory respectively. The block patterns developed are recommended for professional tailors and fashion designers.

Keywords: Anambra State, Development, Women, dress patterns, figure, flaws

Performance Evaluation of Chinese Companies across Various Sectors in Bangladesh Business and Built Environment (Published)

Bangladesh is a country with about 168million people with a GDP growth of 6.5% 2004. This is due to its market-based economy which is the 43rd largest in the world in nominal terms, and 30th largest by purchasing power parity. With its geographical location, economic and population fundamentals, it has attract foreign direct investment (FDI) allowing it full participation in regional and continental development partnerships with its neighbors especially China. China viewed Bangladesh as a crucial and vital partner to its regional development plans especially to its land locked western region. These led to Chinese companies entering the Bangladesh economic sectors to invest and execute projects. However, these Chinese companies must take (or have taken) into cognizance the labour laws, the available & the level of human capacity, the business terrain, the cultural ramifications of the Bangladesh workforce, also the priorities and dynamic government policies. These will influence the performances and overall success of collaborations across various sectors. The study evaluated the performances of Chinese Companies across Various of Bangladesh. It also provides a summary of the main findings in line with the research problem and the research aim. The literature reviewed led to identification of the twelve sectors. The evaluations and assessment show that the performance of Chinese companies across the twelve sectors varies accordingly and that they have a very good performance across eight sectors and satisfactorily / fair across four sectors. These performances are influenced by the levels of collaborations of Bangladeshi people, government and country towards the Chinese companies across various sectors. Altogether, and over some time will lead to better understanding of each other’s work habit, culture, barriers and differences that may will boost the performances of the Chinese companies in future collaborations.

Keywords: Bangladesh, Business, China, Collaborations, Development, Human Resources, Performance, Sectors

Communication, Youths, and Agricultural Development: The Niger Delta Question (Published)

This paper examined the place of communication in mobilizing Niger Delta Youths for agricultural investments. The researchers adopted qualitative approach in conducting the study. This approach also entails that, the study usually depends on secondary data. Four objectives were formulated to guide and give focus to the topic. The study examined types of communication; intrapersonal communication, interpersonal communication, and mass communication. This study shows that Niger Delta has an active work force of about 16,134,968 people, and concluded that any development communicator saddled with the responsibility to disseminate agricultural investment information to Niger Delta youths should be well-informed not only on the subject matter but also about the target social system and about the possible solution to the social problem identified. The study is anchored on development media theory.

Keywords: Agriculture, Development, Youths, communication

Community Development and Mother Values (Published)

Values as principles about what is right and wrong, or ideas about what is important in life can never be divorced from community development and even the whole life. Because values are those factors upon which balance is struck, equilibrium is maintained and the circumstance and context are made peaceful. Values are the other main component and segment of development, particularly communal development, in addition to material component, that have to be joined together with the material. Hence if the joining together is not done, the development will be incomplete, inconsistent and weakened. Despite this status, significance and importance the values have naturally, brilliantly and elaborately, it has been observed that values have been neglected and relegated to the background in community development discourse, theory and practice. The material aspect is more pronounced, promoted, projected and protected to the detriment of the values as an inevitable key factor in the issue of development practices. This makes most of our writings in community development discourse centred around the material like poverty eradication, job creation, and infrastructural development and so on. Therefore, it is in view of this that this paper tries to present values as an important variable in community development discourse, theory and practice for it to be reflected, incorporated, promoted, protected and projected in community development project. This would help tremendously in yielding better outcomes and maintaining equilibrium.

Keywords: Community, Development, Mother, Values

Leadership Behaviour Mutation for National Development (Published)

In recent times, ardent watchers and analysts of the Nigerian project have suggested that the country has endemic leadership issues with genetic foundations deeply rooted in Her DNA. Although this assertion has been sharply contested, the apparent malady in the current behaviours of persons in key leadership positions in the country seems to have assumed worrisome dimensions .The observed leadership behaviours have taken an impoverishing toll on the efforts at National Development. Thus, this work, in the bid to evolve persons with development –centric leadership behaviours, took an organic approach to attempt to resolve the underlying leadership malaise. This was done using metaphoric symbolisms and biological analogies to have an introspective view of aspects of molecular ecology. This dimension was adopted in order to explain how leadership behaviour mutation could counteract the prevailing leadership trend and provide actionable thoughts for the ultimate attainment of sustainable National Development.

Keywords: Behaviour, Development, Leadership, Mutation, Nigeria

Challenges on Development and Education of Nomadic Children in Sokoto State: Implications for Education and Sustainability (Published)

Globally, education as birth right and sustainable development in human capacities and societal progress are being pursued with vigour. The nomadic Fulani are the second largest population of inhabitants in Sokoto state. However, they are among marginalised, underserved, underdeveloped and less educated group not only in the state but the country at large. The paper identifies nomadic life styles, inadequacies in policies and provisions for nomadic education and wide spread corruptions as major sources of constraints to development and education of Fulani children thus affecting the sustainable development prospects. The paper suggests the need for more concerted efforts form individuals and government, need for accurate census figure, mass mobilisation, wide spread campaign and use of culture-friendly integrated health, socio-economic welfare and education packages for all nomads. The paper concludes that it seems obvious that the nomads prefer sending children to cattle rearing than schooling because to the nomads a child who can rear and milk cow is more desirable than a certificate-holder that has no job or cannot breed cattle, thus it is imperative to make nomadic education more relevant to ideals and values of nomads for sustainable development to be a reality and achievable.

Keywords: Challenges, Development, Education, Sokoto, State, nomadic children

Developing Teaching Materials Based on Critical Thinking In Teaching Explanatory Text Writing for Grade Vii Students at Smp Perguruan Islam Amalia Medan (Published)

This study aims to find out: (1) the process of preparing teaching materials based on critical thinking in learning to write explanatory text; (2) the feasibility of teaching materials based on critical thinking in learning to write explanatory text; and (3) the effectiveness of teaching materials based on critical thinking in learning to write explanatory text. This type of research was research and development (R & D) based on Borg and Gall development model adapted from Sanjaya. Data collection techniques carried out included observations, interviews, questionnaires, and tests regarding explanatory text material. The subjects of the trial consisted of individual trials (3 students), small group trials (9 students) and large-scale trials (30 students). The results of the study showed that: (1) material expert validation as a whole reached an average of 85.20% on very good criteria; (2) the validation of learning design experts as a whole reached an average of 84.58% on very good criteria; (3) teacher response with an average of 89.84% on very good criteria; (4) students’ responses to individual trials with an average of 85.48% on very good criteria, small group trials with an average of 90.42% on very good criteria and large scale trials with an average of 93.76 % on very good criteria; (5) the effectiveness of teaching materials is shown from the learning outcomes of the written test, the explanation of the students before using the module was 66.5%, while the learning outcomes of the students’ expedition text writing test after using the module increased by 82.17%. The difference obtained was 15.67% from before to after. The results showed that teaching materials based on critical thinking in explanatory text writing learning are feasible and effective to be used as learning resources.

Keywords: Critical thinking, Development, Explanatory Texts, Teaching Materials

Developing Comic as Learning Media With Sub-Theme “The Beauty Of My Country’s Cultural Diversity” On Social Science in Class IV Of Sdn 026609 Binjai Selatan (Published)

This study aims to: (1) produce learning comic media that is appropriate to use on the sub theme of the beauty of my country’s culture diversity in social science content in class IV; and (2) produce learning comic media on the sub theme of the beauty of my country’s culture diversity that is effective in social science content in class IV. This research is a development research using the development model of Thiagarajan, Semmel, and Semmel, namely by designing a modified 4D model. The instruments used in the study were feasibility validation sheets which included aspects of content/material, language and presentation/design of comics, and test of learning outcomes. The first trial was conducted on students of class IV-a as many as 24 students and the second trial was conducted on IV-b class students by 25 students at SDN 026609 Binjai Selatan. The results of this study indicated that: (1) the learning comic media developed has been used properly; and (2) learning comic media on the sub theme of the beauty of my country’s culture diversity have been effective, judging from the achievement of student learning completeness. Furthermore, it is suggested that teachers can use comic learning media as an alternative learning to improve student learning outcomes.

Keywords: Development, Learning Media, Learning Outcomes

The Development of Contextual Approach-Based Materials for Poetry Writing On Grade X Student In Sma Budi Murni 2 Medan (Published)

This research is based on the learning problems of class X students of SMA Budi Murni 2 that are still teacher-centered. This causes students not being able to study independently because of the lack of poetry text references used in poetry writing class. In addition, the student’s ability to write poetry texts is known to be low because the teaching materials used by teachers and students are still based on textbooks. The book is the only source of information for poetry text writing study. In learning to write poetry texts, teacher sometimes still use learning methods that tend to be monotonous, such as the use of discussion methods. This  is known from the results of observations made by the researchers  themselves. All poetry texts writing learning comes from textbooks. Based on the above problems, the researcher  conducted a research development  aimed at (1) to analyze  the  development  process of the contextual approach-based poetry text writing materials on grade X student  in SMA Budi Murni 2 Medan, (2) to analyze the feasibility of the contextual approach-based poetry text writing materials on grade X student  in SMA Budi Murni 2 Medan, (3) to analyze the effectiveness of the contextual approach-based poetry text writing materials on grade X student  in SMA Budi Murni 2 Medan. The method adopted is the Research and development (R&D) proposed by Sugiyono, based on Borg and Gall. The trial subjects consisted of 3 students in individual test, 9 students in small group test, and 35 students in limited field test. The data collection technique used observation, interviews, questionnaire, and poetry text writing test. The research result shows that (1) material expert’s validation includes content feasibility with an average of 83,52% in “very good” criteria, presentation eligibility with an average of 87,5% in “very good” criteria, and language aspect with an average of  75% in “good” criteria, (2) graphyc design expert’s validation with an average of 83,46% in “very good” criteria, (3) teachers’ responses with an average of 88,23% in “very good” criteria, (4) individual test with an average of 77,77% in “very good” criteria, (5) small group test with an average of 80,10% in “very good” criteria, (6) limited field test with an average of 84,82% in “very good” criteria. The learning outcomes of student’s poetry writing before using the module was 74.28,  while after using the module increased up to 85.57. The resulted difference between before and after the module usage is as much as 11.29. The implication of this study is that, the developed teaching materials may provide practical contributions in the implementation of the learning process for teacher. This is because the additional teaching materials provide convenience in the process of teaching.

Keywords: Approach, Based, Contextual, Development, Material, Poetry, Teaching, Text, writing

Entrepreneurship Education for Sustainable Development in Nigeria (Published)

The paper focuses on entrepreneurship education as a mechanism for achieving sustainable development in Nigeria. The following terms were clearly discussed namely the entrepreneur, characteristics, the theories of entrepreneurship were also stated including the challenges of entrepreneurship  education which includes students orientation, what to teach, how to teach and who to teach as well as the possible solutions  to be adopted. This research identifies that although some strategies emphasis on entrepreneurship skills there is dire requirement for a comprehensive orientation of institutions with the sole aim of improving the entrepreneurship mentality of the youths. The aftermath of this is the generation of employment, increased output through innovations, efficient utilization of available resources and the facilitation in the transfer of technological advancement to mention a few have been identified as the contributions of Entrepreneurship to the development of a country. Based on these propositions as well other discourses a number of recommendations were suggested which includes; a call for stakeholders to recommit themselves towards development of entrepreneurship through the provision of adequate resources for teaching as well as well-equipped empowerment development centers. The paper emphasis that based on the shared responsibilities for entrepreneurship development it can be employed as a viable tool for sustainable development in Nigeria.

Keywords: Development, Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneur, Sustainable