Does Continuous Professional Development (CPD) Improve Teachers’ Performance? Evidences from Public Schools in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (Published)
Continuous Professional Development (CPD) is the concept that individual teachers strive to enhance their professional competence and knowledge beyond the initial training necessary to do their job. Therefore, the goal of this research is to investigate the nexus between continuous professional development (CPD) and teachers’ teaching competence, action research preparation, mentoring and peer observation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia’s Gulele sub city’s public schools. By using mixed research design, the descriptive survey approach was used. Purposive, availability, and simple random sample techniques were all utilized in the study. With a total of 340 participants, the sample size was 220 teachers, 30 department heads, 30 principals, 20 vice principals, 10 CPD facilitators, 10woreda education office experts, 10 cluster supervisors, and 10 sub city education office experts. Three research questions were utilized in this study. Questionnaires, interviews, and document analysis were used to obtain information. Principals, Vice principals, department heads, Continuous Professional Development facilitators, cluster supervisors, Woreda and sub city education office specialists were among those who took part in the interview. The data collected through closed-ended questionnaires was then analyzed using mean scores, standard deviations, and rank. While the data collected through interviews and open-ended questions was subjectively narrated. The findings of this study revealed that Continuous Professional Development (CPD) moderately improved the teachers’ teaching competence, action research preparation, mentoring and peer observation activity.
Political Interference and Bureaucratic Performance in Nigeria: A human resource trajectory of the muffling of bureaucratic capacity (Published)
The study focus on political interference and bureaucratic performance in Nigeria: A human resource trajectory of the muffling of bureaucratic capacity. The objectives of the study are to challenge the unbalance thesis of the overdevelopment of government bureaucracy stunting political development and by extension causing underdevelopment in Africa, examine the impact of political interference on the Delta State Oil Producing Areas Development Commission (DESOPADEC) human resources performance, and examine the extent to which temporary political executives seek to extend their reach in DESOPADEC by politicizing the bureaucracy and how cooperate governance is undermined in the process. Mixed methods research design was used for the study. The findings revealed that 86% of those recruited into the organization were influenced by political considerations and that political interference in bureaucratic organization’s recruitment and selection processes heavily impede the bureaucracy opportunity to hiring skillful and qualified candidates. The researchers recommended that political executives and the political class should be isolated from bureaucratic recruitment and selection process to allow private sector consultants selected by host communities and civil society organizations to be allow to conduct merit based employment. It also recommended that host communities representatives and civil society organizations monitor the required process while advocating for the use of Information Communication technology tools to conduct transparent interview(s) to allow for transparency and equal opportunities for all participants. `
Training and development is essential to any firm that wants to retain employees and realize better performance. Current businesses are forced to establish training and development programs that assist in attaining required skills and competencies in the organization. But without competent employees, firms grapple with challenges of poor output and dismal performance. This conceptual study paper presents a synopsis of the linkage of training, employee retention and performance. Theories underpinning the study are human capital theory, social learning theory and theory of human resource management. Drawn from wide theoretical assumptions, opportunity to training is one of the greatest reasons to why workers stay in the organization. Employees need noble training opportunities to improve their performance and demand in the labour market. Training is seen as a major factor in contributing to employee improved performance and reduction of work related accidents. Various scholars have alluded to the fact that retained employees master the art of delivering excellent goods and services to consumers. There is need for establishment of better employee retention strategies to bond trained employees with the firm. The paper contributes to body of knowledge by providing a conceptual framework of the linkage of training, employee retention and performance which would be of beneficial to human resource practitioners and human resource policy makers. It further builds a model that will assist researchers in exploring employee retention as a mediating role in training and performance.
This article aims to shed light to the history and development of property regimes in Albania by analyzing marital property regime since the approval of the Civil Code in 1929, the Code of 1966 and 1982, while comparing the current Code of family, without putting on the side some comparing observations of the marital with loyalty, that of the power between a man and woman, this because of the conservatism of the society at the time. While between 1948-1966 accorning the development of the property regime of marital, it is noticed that the development of the relationships in the field of property, where the main characteristic is following the constitutional principle of gender equality. The main form of co-ownership predicted in the Codes of the time is that of total co-ownership. In 1981, in the dispositions of Civic code of the family, codes that entered in force in 1982, pushed by the new “moral-humanist” requests to ensure a real solidarity between the consorts, it was imposed to them the unique marital property regime, that of co-ownership.
From the primordial to the modern society, the performing arts have always played very essential roles in bringing people together, to develop cultural norms and values that are paramount to human co-existence in society. From the very simple theatrical forms to the most sophisticated development in movies, the performing arts have always united, corrected, educated and entertained members of society, thereby contributing to national development. Like sports, the performing arts’ ability to do this is natural, spontaneous and legendary. This paper examines the traditional roles of the performing arts (Drama, Music, Dance, etc) in uniting and developing society, from the classical to the modern society, in different societies of the world. It examines the current state of these arts worldwide, denouncing their negative uses and extolling their deployment for responsible uses. Operating on the theory of functionality of Arts, it goes on to identify in very concrete terms, how performing art forms could be used to enhance human resources development and make society a better place to live in.
Development and Validation of Instrument for Students’ Appraisal of Teachers’ Instructional Effectiveness in Secondary Schools in Akwa Ibom State. (Published)
This study was conducted to develop and validate instrument for students’ appraisal of teachers’ instructional effectiveness in secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State. Two research questions were raised to guide the study. The population of the study was 50914 SS2 students in public secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State. A sample of 1021 students was selected for the study using multi-stage sampling technique. The instrument developed by the researcher was titled Students’ Appraisal of Teachers’ Instructional Effectiveness Scale (SATIES). Subtest- total correlation was used to establish construct validity for the instrument. Cronbach Alpha statistics was used to establish the reliability of the instrument which yielded a coefficient of 0.882. It was recommended among others that school supervisors should make use of the instrument in appraising teachers to get a clear picture of the classroom activities of a particular teacher.
Evaluation of the Impact of E-Laboratory on Engineering Research and Development in Nigeria: Emphasis on Universities in Delta State (Published)
The study evaluated the impact of electronic laboratory to engineering research and development in Universities in Delta State. Three research questions and three corresponding hypotheses guided the study. Design of the study was descriptive survey. Population of the study comprised 12, 482 (8,338 academic and 4,144 administrative) while the sample for the study consisted of 747 (382 academic and 365 administrative) staff who were sampled for the study using random sampling technique. Instrument used for collecting data for the study was an 18 item questionnaire titled. The instrument was validated by three experts; one each from the Departments of Mechanical Engineering, Measurement and Evaluation, and Educational Management who assisted in determining the face and content validities of the questionnaire. The reliability of the questionnaire was determined using Cronbach Alpha with an index of 0.88. The research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation while the hypotheses were tested using z-test at 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed that online simulation laboratory, three-dimensional laboratory and computerized science laboratory all impact on engineering research and development. There was no significant difference in the opinion of academic staff and administrative staff on the impact of online simulation laboratory and three-dimensional laboratory but a significant difference existed on the impact of computerized science laboratory. Based on these findings, it was recommended that more technological facilities should be provided for the conduct of engineering research activities and the staff who carry put this research should be trained on modern technological research skills from time to time.
Education has been widely recognized not only as a fundamental human right but also as a catalyst for sustainable development and a vehicle for confronting the challenges facing societies in terms of socio-economic, environmental and ecological realities, considerable attention is shifting towards it. As a corollary, Sustainable Development Goal 4 have equally been identified as constituting a force contributing to social and economic development. As a member of the United Nations, Nigeria is committed to achieving not only the human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 but also the Global Goals, especially SDG 4 on equitable quality education. This paper examines the UNESCO Sustainable Development Goals 4 and it’s conceptual dimensions. The paper also outlines current trends in the context of the Nigerian education system and suggests policy, strategy and institutional considerations for the purpose of achieving SDG 4 in Nigeria. A number of suggestions were made towards the achievement of sustainable development goal 4, such as integrating education and training at all levels.
Entrepreneurship Studies Education in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria: Theories and Practices (Published)
The paper examined the extent to which entrepreneurship studies education had been effectively taught and learnt in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. It outlined the core objectives of entrepreneurship Studies education. Entrepreneurship studies education has a lot of challenges such as lack of policy implementation and inadequate funding among others. Requirements for its effective implementation are also outlined. The paper recommends that there be provision for adequate infrastructural materials, teachers and learners awareness and adequate provision of materials if the objectives of the course must actualized. The paper concluded that entrepreneurship studies education contributes significantly towards the growth and development of any given society
An Appraisal of Techno-Dynamics Structure of On-Farm Textile Innovation Development in Ondo State, Nigeria (Published)
The study aimed at appraising techno-dynamics structure of on-farm textile innovations development in Ondo State of Nigeria. It assessed cultural-systematic factor and, analysed socio- economic characteristics of the techno- dynamics structure influencing development of the innovation. Public Agricultural Development Programme’s agency in the State was selected, and snowball sampling procedure was used in selecting four Agricultural Research Institutes for the study. Purposive sampling procedure was employed in selecting a total of 78 research and 90 extension staff. Key informant interviews schedule, questionnaire, and Focus Group Discussions were used to generate information. Descriptive statistics was applied in summarizing data collected and correlation analysis for determining relationship between development and techno-dynamics structure. Finding from social survey highlighted low level of development for on-farm textile innovation. Technical knowledge given to farmers was not adequate enough to support development and, the innovations suffered customary lag. On-farm textile development lacked appropriate innovation emergence and dissemination approach. At p<0.01 and p < 0.05 the following techno-dynamics variables showed significant relationship with development viz: accessible innovation transfer system(r = -0.597**), staff training needs(r = 0.391*), marketing mechanism(r = 0.475*), and funding system (r = 0.371*). It is therefore suggested that, government should consent to statutory policies and principles of innovation emergence and transfer. Policy makers and administrators should monitor and strengthen interaction between all related institutes for the introduced innovation. Adequate funding should also be provided for research and extension activities on on-farm textile development.
Globalization in recent times has impacted positively on various aspects of life and advanced new opportunities for international co-operation, yet it has led to multifaceted social, economic, political and environmental challenges across the globe. Several developmental trajectories have been advanced towards addressing the dynamism of the developmental needs of countries by world leaders -from the 21st century Millennium Developmental Goals (MDGs)to the Education for all Goals (EFA)and more recently, the Sustainable development goals(SDGs) in their declaration of the anticipated future for global transformation ,come 2030.The United Nations identified seventeen (17)sustainable developmental goals that will help world transformation ,if achieved; but little attention was given to the societal organs/medium that will assist the realization of these goal such as language. This work therefore tries to fill this gap, using a qualitative research based on Sapir-Whorfian theory of language, with Leech’s five characteristics of language- informative, expressive, directive, aesthetic and phatic. The study seeks to assess the role of language in the attainment of the Sustainable development goals ,bearing in mind that the world is peopled with nations of diversified languages whose aims are to achieve collaborative partnership for world’s transformation ,by the year 2030.It was discovered that language plays a significant role in the achievement of virtually all the Sustainable development goals (SDGs)- from quality education to healthy living, promotion of peace and inclusive societies, industrialization and innovations ,implementation and revitalization of global partnership and others for the purpose of world transformation.
Development and Evaluation of Instructional Video for Teaching and Learning Woodwork Technology Psychomotor Skills in Nigerian Universities: Implication for the Production of Competent Graduates (Published)
Woodwork is one of the areas of Technical Education programme at the University level in Nigeria. The objectives of this programme have not been achieved due to the inadequate nature of materials and human resources for implementing its curriculum. In order to address the issue of Technical Education graduates not possessing employable skills, an intervening measure is to develop and evaluate instructional video for teaching and learning Woodwork Technology. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate Woodwork Technology instructional video. Five (5) research questions guided the study. The population of this study comprised of twenty two (22) heads of units of Building/Woodwork Construction Technology in all the twenty two (22) Universities in Nigeria whose Technical Education programme were accredited as at 2012. The purposive sampling technique was used to select 10 Heads of Units of Building/Woodwork Construction Technology. Primary data were collected using camera and its accessories, and the modified Province of Prince Edwards Island Department of Education DVD/ Video Evaluation form. The data collected was analyzed using frequency count and mean. Based on the findings of the study, it was concluded that the developed instructional video for teaching and learning practical skills in Woodwork Technology at the University level is suitable in terms of its content, instructional design, technical design, and social consideration.
Communal participation has been a collective and progressive impetus for societal development since medieval era while popular representation is one of the indispensable pillars of good governance in modern times. The study examined the impact of communal participation on good governance in Bomadi and Patani local government areas of Delta State, Nigeria. The study investigated the practise of communal participation in the communities and wards, the extent of participation in local government affairs and the leadership style that encourages participation or representation of community members in the local government councils. Data were generated from both primary and secondary sources. Samples of 200 respondents were interviewed through the administration of questionnaire designed according to 5-point Likert scale of strongly agreed (SA) to strongly disagree (SDA). Demographic data were collected and analysed by tables of frequency and percentage. The measures of central tendency such as the mean and standard deviation were employed to analyse the three objectives adopting mean of 2.50 as agree (A) or acceptable criterion at (0.05) level of significance. Findings revealed that there was appreciable level of communal participation and representation in the two local government areas. The study recommended that, a more pragmatic involvement of community leaders in decision making, projects initiation, planning and execution be adequately demonstrated. This should be carried out through regular town hall meetings with community leaders and mass media sensitization to enhance good governance at the grassroots level.
The capacity of any organisation to function in line with its strategic objectives depends largely on its employees. But employees are not needed for themselves, rather, for their skills and competences which have limits but can be enhanced through training and development for efficient organisational performance. However, some organisations are reluctant to invest in staff training and development under the assumption that they can price skilled employees from their competitors to solve their immediate performance needs rather than invest long term in staff training and development. Consequently, the role of staff training and development tends to be downplayed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess whether organisations can do without staff training and development. Using the exploration of secondary data from relevant previous studies in a mainly qualitative method, this study found sufficient evidences that strongly link staff training and development to employee and organisational performance. The study asserted that although organisations are at liberty to determine when, how and to what extent they embark on staff training and development, they inevitably have to in their pursuit of organisational success.
Factors Affecting the Development of Banh Phong Craft Village: A Case of Cai Be District in Tien Giang Province, Vietnam (Published)
This study aims to estimate the factors affecting the development of Banhphong Craft Village in Cai Be district, Tien Giang province, Vietnam. The sample data of 185 survey questionnaire responses collected by representatives of producers, stratified samples by labor size. The regression analysis results have tested four factors at the 0.05 significance level. They are the financial capacity of the producing household; Infrastructure; Production conditions of the producing household, and the understanding ability of the household head.
A framework is built, wherein hydrological/water quality model is used to measure watershed sustainability. For this framework, watershed sustainability has been defined and quantified by defining social, environmental and biodiversity indicators. By providing weightage to these indicators, a “River Basin Sustainability Index” is built. The watershed sustainability is then calculated based on the concepts of reliability, resilience and vulnerability. The framework is then applied to a case study, where, based on watershed management principles, four land use scenarios are created in GIS. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used as a hydrology/water quality model. Based on the results the land uses are ranked for sustainability and policy implications have been discussed. This results show that land use (both type and location) impact watershed sustainability. The existing land use is weak in environmental sustainability. Also, riparian zones play a critical role in watershed sustainability, although beyond certain width their contribution is not significant.
The contribution of women to the socio-economic and political development of any modern democratic state is essential and indispensable. This paper examines the extent of women participation in politics and national development in Nigeria. The study adopted secondary data as sources of information. The constraints of women participation inpolitics pose as hindrance to national developmentin Nigeria. It is discernible from this study that cultural, environmental, educational and gender factors are major barriers to active women participation inpolitics. It is part of the objectives of this work to realize active women participation in National political life for a sustainable National development.Government at all levels should embark on enlightenment campaign to sensitize the public on the need for more women to embrace and pursue education as this is a catalyst for active women participation inpolitics. It is also recommended that coercive legislations should be made at all levels against every form of discrimination against women.
This study is a descriptive one. It examines the motives behind electoral malpractice in Nigeria, finds out the factors that aid the act in the study area, and discusses the consequences of electoral malpractice on the country’s sustainable development. It relied on secondary data that were content analysed. The study found that crave for power, attitude of the politicians who see politics as investment, vengeance and preponderance of seeing electoral periods as pay-back times are some of the motives for engaging in electoral malpractice. Additionally, poverty, lack or poor political education, bribery and corruption, and inadequate planning on the part of political parties/candidates are some of the factors responsible for electoral malpractice. The study also found that electoral malpractice slows down development, breeds violence and destroys the image of Nigeria. The study further draws implications of electoral malpractice for the Nigerian state. As ways out of the challenge, there is need for more political education by National Orientation Agency and Independent National Electoral Commission, institution of electoral-courts, and thorough enforcement of the electoral act, making the electoral body truly autonomous and putting of appropriate legislation in place to punish offenders in order to overcome some of the havocs electoral malpractice wrecks in Nigeria.
A Historical Analysis of the Introduction, Spread and Impact of Western Education in Southern Taraba Area, 1905 to 2018 (Published)
Education can be construed as a pattern of awareness which determines and influences the behavioural pattern of any given society. It encompasses societal civilization, values, norms and traditions. It is a people’s belief system, system of thought, an instrument through which a society produces and reproduces its kind in the light of what makes one a representation of his/her society. Every society therefore has its own system of education through which cultural transmission and socialization are anchored. Unfortunately, former colonies erroneously consider western education as the only best alternative for all-round development. It is viewed as the basic instrument for civilization, gainful employment, socialization, economic prosperity and development. This conventional assumptions has resulted in the eventual neglect of the traditional education by African societies, Southern Taraba inclusive. This paper therefore examine the process of introduction and spread of western education in Southern Taraba Area. The paper captures issues like the agencies and individuals involved, the impact, challenges encountered and how the challenges can be remedied. Thus, using a multi-disciplinary methodological approach, the study came to the realization that western education has impacted tremendously on the peoples of Southern Taraba Area in the spheres of human, infrastructural, political and socio-economic development.
Perception of Stakeholders’ On Empowering Women for Socio-Economic Development in an Enduring Democracy in North- West Nigeria (Published)
The paper examined the stakeholders’ perception on empowering women for socio-economic development in a enduring democracy in Nigeria. Women are also in the capacity to assist government achieve its laudable goals and objectives through public enlightenment and national mobilization campaigns. In general, education wipes away ignorance, political apathy and encourages mutual; understanding and cooperation among the various strata in any given society. The population of this study consisted of all the stakeholders in education that comprised the students, graduates, teachers, school administrators, Ministry personnel, Quality Assurances officers in the North-west zone of Nigeria. The population total was 1970 out of this numbers, 1261 respondents were proportionately selected for the study. Four states were selected out of the seven North-western states using purposive sampling technique. 3 research questions were raised for the study and three (3) objectives, descriptive statistics was used to answer the research questions.. The study concludes that significant association exist between empowerment and socio-economic development of women by stakeholders’ in an enduring democracy in’ Nigeria. It was recommended that empowerment can successfully be achieved by designing and implementing well planned and organized educational programmes . Women need greater access to educational opportunities, skills acquisition and position of authority for them to be truly empowered.