Contribution of community conservation projects on improved livelihoods, and sustainable biodiversity conservation in Nyungwe National Park (Published)
Recently, Rwanda Development Board (RDB) has established a revenue sharing scheme (RSS) to create a win-win approach in protected areas for effective biodiversity conservation and management. Through this scheme, around 1 billion Rwandan francs were invested to support around 152 Community Based Conservation Projects (CBCs), and integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs). This paper assessed the contribution of conservation projects around Nyungwe National Park (NNP). It evaluated their efficiency and effectiveness, and their socio-economic impact to the local community development. Secondary data about the revenue sharing projects and the amount of money allocated to each project were collected from RDB office. Primary data were collected through the interview and focus group discussion. To verify the findings from RDB, interview and focus group discussion (FGD) were used. Interview was done with local peoples around Nyungwe National Park and with community conservation wardens, while threats to NNP were verified by the consultation of reports from ranger based monitoring officers. The results showed that the value of resources collected by people from the park is higher than the revenue sharing support offered by RDB and consequently the revenue sharing scheme did not significantly reduce threats to biodiversity and its impact around NNP. We recommend the revision of the whole revenue sharing scheme, taking into account the cost of livelihoods of community surrounding the park.
Protected Areas, Mass Tourism and Economic Development Projects – A Successful Economic and Financial Result or a Problem: Georgian Experience (Published)
The tourism industry in the world and in Georgia takes larger scales and is characterized by its growing and dynamic development. Tourism potential in the protected areas is of high importance, it is the most essential national heritage, original natural and cultural environment, unique ecosystems, their protection, maintenance, use and development needs to be studied and explored. The main goal of the paper is to study and explore the perspective of the mass tourism in the protected areas and the conformity of financially lucrative economic development projects and their influence on the biodiversity of the protected areas. The statistical data of the tourism growth in protected areas, financial income, infrastructure and data of economic development projects were analyzed, as well as the results of sociological research, conducted by our team. Analysis and research have revealed some disharmony and non-compatibility. Although tourism in protected areas has a great export potential, it may damage protected areas and its biodiversity Also, financially lucrative economic development projects that are vital for the country`s development tighten and make problems for the biological and landscape diversity of the protected areas; it also hampers ecological security and protection of natural heritage.