Tag Archives: developing countries

On-Field Sports Spectatorship and Patronage: A Sociological X-Ray of Its Determinants for Effective Sports Management in Developing Countries (Published)

The critical and sociological insight on the on-field sports spectatorship and patronage in any society is important in sport studies especially for effective sports management. The on-field sports spectatorship and patronage can be influenced by diverse societal forces or determinants such as spectator’s level of interest, motivation and involvement in sports; type of sports involved; type/level of sports participants; safety and security in and around sports venues; ticket, ticketing and ticket dynamics for sports; finance and income level of sports consumers; publicity and media coverage of sports; crowd control mechanism at sports venues; social influencers and significant others in sports; means and distance to sports venues; purpose of sports meet; level and type of officials and officiating; composition of spectators or sports crowd; sponsors of sports events; stage of the sports competition; level and quality of sports organization; spectators’ past sports experience; establishing social contacts with sports personalities at sports venues; servicescape and sportscape of the sports facility; location of the sports venue; sports history of players, teams or clubs; sports schedule in terms of day and time; sports violence and hooliganism; intrinsic quest for sports entertainment; weather condition; sports culture of the society, and demographic characteristics of sports consumers. It was suggested among others that Ministry of Sports and sports organizations should boost the sports interest of spectators, motivate and sensitize them on the need for on-field sports spectatorship and to patronize sports. Sports organizers should consider the type of sports programme to package for spectators.

Keywords: Determinants, Patronage, Sports Management, Sports Spectatorship, developing countries

Educational Attainment Favourability Mapping With the Application of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) (Published)

The educational attainment belongs to the core of the educational researches;  and, researchers within this domain are attempting to develop the ‘tools and techniques’ of demarcating the areas having a degree of advancement or backwardness in terms of attainment; as well as effort is being made to examine the internal functions of the interactive variables associated with the process. In the present study we try to apply the algorithm of Analytical Hierarchy Process in mapping the spatial differentiation of the favourability of educational attainment in the district of Purulia, a backward districts in terms of achieved level of human development in India.  The output from the model has been validated with the variable of Mean Year of Schooling which is a recognized indicator of the prevailing level of attainment. The spatial mapping of educational favourability is done.

Keywords: AHP, Multi criteria, Pair wise comparison matrix, developing countries

Trade and Intellectual Property: Developing Country Perspective (Published)

With time, the International property protection and enforcement have come to the forefront as a key international trade issue for several nations. It very plays a crucial role in international trade, economic relations, and economic growth. With the protection of intellectual property rights, developing countries are able to take part actively in international trade. This gives an understanding of the intellectual property rights, types, historical perspective and impact on developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to provide the reader a clear idea of trade and intellectually property in developing countries. The paper is of extreme importance because it is one of the few papers that highlights the issues of trade and Intellectual property from a developing country perspective.

Keywords: Intellectual Property Rights, developing countries

World Trade Organization in Developing Countries: Process, Roles, Practices and Effectiveness (Published)

Significance of WTO dispute settlement is not restricted to a particular area, but it is spread in different areas also. Its benefits have been seen not only in developed nations, but also in the developing nations. In this paper we are providing an overview of the work of  WTO dispute settlement in developing countries. Moreover, light is shed on different types of benefits which are provided to the developing nations in terms of legal, political, economic and social terms. By analyzing these kinds of benefits, the actual performance of WTO dispute settlement process in favor and concerning of developing nations is reviewed in detail.

Keywords: Disputes Settlement, WTO, developing countries

Project Failure as a Reoccurring Issue in Developing Countries: Focus On Anambra State, South East Nigeria (Published)

Project failure has become a recurrent feature of construction projects in developing countries as revealed by research works. This manifests not only as abandonment of projects, but in the form of structural defaults leading to structural collapse, prolonged projects delivery time, cost overshoots and client dissatisfaction. The aim of this research therefore was to critically analyse the factors that may lead to project failure in Anambra State, South East, Nigeria, with a view to ameliorating the high level of project failure. Primary information used in the research were sourced from a survey of one hundred (100) project professionals, with a minimum of 5 years of experience. Structured questionnaires based on the Likert-5-Point Scale of Responses were used to capture their opinions on the reasons for project failure, while Secondary information were sourced from review of literature.  Results were analyzed using appropriate statistical tools based on the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 16.0). Our results show that indeed, the rate of failure of projects is high (p = 0.000). We have established and firmly ranked the first five factors responsible for project failure in Anambra State, South East, Nigeria. The researchers concludes that the most important factor for project failure is increase in the price of starting materials.  It is recommended that the results  presented in this research be widely disseminated and used in community enlightenment, and in further policy guidance and regulation. It is also recommended that the study be applied to the entire South East, Nigeria in order to generate better client satisfaction in subsequent projects.

Keywords: Project Failure, South East Nigeria, developing countries

Project Failure As A Reoccurring Issue In Developing Countries: Focus On Anambra State, South East Nigeria (Published)

Project failure has become a recurrent feature of construction projects in developing countries as revealed by research works. This manifests not only as abandonment of projects, but in the form of structural defaults leading to structural collapse, prolonged projects delivery time, cost overshoots and client dissatisfaction. The aim of this research therefore was to critically analyse the factors that may lead to project failure in Anambra State, South East, Nigeria, with a view to ameliorating the high level of project failure. Primary information used in the research were sourced from a survey of one hundred (100) project professionals, with a minimum of 5 years of experience. Structured questionnaires based on the Likert-5-Point Scale of Responses were used to capture their opinions on the reasons for project failure, while Secondary information were sourced from review of literature. Results were analyzed using appropriate statistical tools based on the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 16.0). Our results show that indeed, the rate of failure of projects is high (p = 0.000). We have established and firmly ranked the first five factors responsible for project failure in Anambra State, South East, and Nigeria. The researchers concludes that the most important factor for project failure is increase in the price of starting materials. It is recommended that the results presented in this research be widely disseminated and used in community enlightenment, and in further policy guidance and regulation. It is also recommended that the study be applied to the entire South East, Nigeria in order to generate better client satisfaction in subsequent projects

Keywords: Project Failure, South East Nigeria, developing countries

ASSESSMENT OF CLIMATE CHANGE WITH ENERGY EXPANSION FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES (Published)

The burning of fossil fuels, greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), especially CO2 may cause climate change. Environmentally friendly energy progress has major consequences for developing countries as a major emitters because their population growth and fast. This article presents an overview of the developing countries in their efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by energy price reform, promote energy efficiency and renewable energy. The paper focuses on the challenges facing developing countries, such as emission standards conflicting objectives realistic and motivation is hard and social consciousness. There are some options that may be, the paper concludes that reducing greenhouse gas emissions can be achieved if the policies, standards and targeted support and motivation that is practical and flexible, and the community is actively to respond environmental degradation.

Keywords: Climate Change, Energy Efficiency, Energy progress, developing countries

THE ADOPTION OF RISK BASED INTERNAL AUDITING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: THE CASE OF GHANAIAN COMPANIES (Published)

The study investigated the adoption of Risk Based Internal Audit in Ghana, the factors that influence the adoption or non adoption of Risk Based Internal Audit amongst Ghanaian Companies. The involvement of internal auditors in risk assessment was also assessed in the context of Enterprise Risk Management. The study employed Pearson’s chi-square test of independence model at a p-value of 0.05. It was observed that risk based approach to internal auditing is widely used amongst Ghana’s Club 100 companies, especially amongst financial, Telecommunications, and Manufacturing companies. The study again found out that, there is high involvement of IA in risk management which translated to the use of risk based approaches in planning annual audits. Regulation the study observed is not a driver of adoption of RBIA in Ghana. The main factor that motivated the adoption of RBIA was, RBIA helped these organizations to focus on high risks priority areas

Keywords: Enterprise Risk Management, Internal Auditing, Risk Based Approaches, Risk Based Internal Audit, Risk Management, developing countries

An Empirical study of the Capital Structure of Micro, Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Nigeria (Review Completed - Accepted)

The analysis of capital structure of organizations has conventionally been applied to corporate entities. Previous studies on Microfinance have classified enterprises into two broad categories-the Small and Medium scale enterprises respectively. Micro-scale businesses are conventionally grouped with Small scale enterprises without specifically analysing their businesses. The research therefore examines the capital structure of micro, small and medium scale enterprises (MSMEs) as well as the factors influencing it. Primary data were collected by administering 300 copies of research instrument with a combination of cluster and simple random sampling techniques. The research discovered that there is a significant difference in the Capital Structure of Nigerian MSMEs; there is no statistically significant difference between the Capital Structure of Nigerian MSMEs at start-up and the Capital Structure at continuation; and the factors influencing the patronage of bank and non-bank finance providers among MSMEs do not significantly differ

Keywords: Capital Structure, Financial exclusion, Venture Capital, developing countries

The Effect of Business Incubation in Developing Countries (Published)

The aim of this paper is to review the literature and show the strength and weakness of business incubation in developing countries. This paper is based on a wide literature review, focused on the identification of the incubators as tool for economic development. We found that 1) business incubators provide support for start-up companies, 2) graduated companies tend to have a greater probability of success and 3) graduated companies have a significant positive impact on economic development. These findings can help policy makers, governments, and practitioners with their implementation in incubator programs, leading to better planning and a greater chance of success. This paper contributes to enhance the understanding of the strategic implementation of incubator models in developing countries and provides useful information to both academicians and practitioners who are interested in incubator programs.

Keywords: Economic Development, Incubators, Strategic, developing countries