Tag Archives: Design

Elements and Principles of Design in Garment Production among Small Scale Producers of Berekum Municipal in Ghana (Published)

The study was to investigate whether small scale garment producers in Berekum apply the elements and principles of design in garment manufacturing (since some produced garments had colours not well blended, fabric with lines not meeting at seam joints, motifs not well arranged, and some garment styles not looking good on clients’ figures because their figure types were not considered before designing) and to unearth strategies to improve their clothing designing skills to meet current market standards. The study used a descriptive survey research design. The snow ball and convenience sampling techniques in selecting one hundred small scale garment producers for the study. The main instrument was a questionnaire and observation checklist, analysed to generate frequencies, percentages and mean, and presented in tables. It was revealed that the garment producers had a fair knowledge in the application of the elements and principles of design and about 85% appreciated their importance. However, they failed to practice because of Clients’ demand. Findings from workshop organized revealed the need for using smart phones and has aided in the provision of an easy access to information which has sort to promote the use of data and real-world applications to enhance their productivity. The respondents therefore suggested that frequent in- service training and workshops should be organized for them by their Tailors and Dressmakers Association and Ghana National Association of Tailors and Dressmakers (GNATD) in order to meet current market demands and competition since majority of them went through apprenticeship training where there was no standard syllabus for them to learn from.

Keywords: Design, Knowledge, Skills, competency, elements and principles of design, garment

Computer Approach to the Design of Coconut Dehusking Machine (Published)

This research centres on the Design of Coconut dehusking machine using computer Approach. A total of sixty nine parameters form the database. Computer “If statement” was used. The user’s interface was printed. Each variable’s value was selected from the previous calculated results and in turn were inputed to the system programme whilst the corresponding result was displayed. The summary of the result is being tabulated. The major components of the design covered the angle bar, the handle rod, the fasteners, the shaft, the spring and the bushing. Valued parameters include the Areas (mm2), the weight (kg), the thickness (mm), length (mm), the volume (mm3), the Diameter (mm) etc. the beauty of this design is its flexibility, interchangeability and manufacturability. It is compact, easy and simple. This original design can also be manipulated and modified.

Keywords: Coconut Dehusking Machine, Computer, Design

Environmental Sustainable Building Design and Construction (Published)

Global or national problems are rarely as discrete from one another as we might think. They are often, in fact, linked in complex ways. Both the emergence of global crises, and the policies put in place to address them, can and often do overlap in important ways. Such is the case with the global or national financial crisis which leads to recession in some cases and the broader ongoing global environmental crisis. Amidst this crisis, this paper examinesways of creating sustainable buildings, building design and construction (green buildings) which are structurally stable, functional and healthy for people to live and work in and however reducing carbon dioxide emission both regionally and nationally. Investigations clearly shows that Many natural resources and building materials require mining, processing, refining and ultimately manufacturing, transport and delivery before they are utilized in construction. The energy used during these processes is high and have greater risk of physical, health, financialand environmental implications at large. As a result the emergence of sustainable building, or green building, has brought about an awareness of what the building industry can do to curb high energy use, minimize waste, and create environments that are healthy and productive.

Keywords: Design, Energy, Green Building, Structurally Stable

Fuelless Generator: Comparison of Two Prototype Design (Published)

This research effort focus on comparison of two prototype designs, construction and performance evaluation of V-belt and direct coupling fuelless power generating set. Search for renewable energy is important as the fossil fuel depletion as been noticed.  There are basically three ways of transmitting mechanical power from one point to another. Belt and pulley drive, Gear and chain and direct coupling. The two power generating sets were locally constructed at the Federal College of Agriculture, Ibadan Nigeria. These researches technically investigate two out of the three ways of mechanical power transmission system (Belt & Pulley and Direct Coupling Design). The evaluation of the work shows that coupling design of power fuelless generating is better than Belt and Pulley design of the generating set with efficiency range of 0% -89.9% for direct coupling while 0% – 73.23% for V-belt design.

Keywords: Design, Fuelless Generator, Prototype

Design and Construction of a Tube Type Lubricating Oil Heat Exchanger (Published)

A heat exchanger is a device used to transfer thermal energy (enthalpy) between two or more fluids, at different temperatures. This tube type lubricating oil heat exchanger is used to extract heat from lubricating oil circulating in the main engine of a vessel. Its operation is based on the principle of heat balance, given as: Q=MhCph∆Th = McCpc∆Tc. This heat exchanger was designed using the Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference method and it takes up sea water at 27 degree celsius and exits it at a temperature of 68 degree celsius. The exchanger has 96 tubes and a shell area of 0.0239 square meter, with an overall heat transfer coefficient of 172.3W/moc and effectiveness of 50.41 percent. The paper shows standard steps to design and analyze the working and performance of a Tube type heat exchanger. By plotting a graph of effectiveness against lubricating oil temperature difference, using the energy balance equation and analyzing same, the maximum possible effectiveness is obtained. The uniqueness of this design is essentially in its mode of operation, simplicity and construction.

Keywords: Construction, Design, Heat Exchanger, Tube Type Lubricating Oil

Designing of Web Filtering Policies (Published)

At present, the internet plays an integral part in business and education. However, without setting appropriate controls in place, universities are likely to be faced with a broad range of issues. One of which is a misuse of the internet by students if they try access to inappropriate web content during exams. The objectives of this research are to design the web filtering policies, use a tool having the capability of denying access to the content of all websites except the exam site, and to compare and validate the Smoothwall Express over Monowall. The research assisted in assuring the quality in respect of final achievement for the students.

Keywords: Design, OUS, Policy, filtering

Assessment of the Impact of Musculoskeletal Disorders on Nigerian Construction Workers (Published)

The purpose of the study is to assess the impact of construction activities as construction work entails non-ergonomic activities, range of in-situ work at various levels and construction workers; complain of pain, retire early from work, are frequently absent, are required to handle materials manually resulting in poor productivity as contractors are required to execute designs and excessive material wastage occurs. The focus is on reducing the impact of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMD’s) among construction workers through contractor’s perception thereby creating effective and healthy construction workplaces. Given that the general contractors (GCs) responded relative to both general contractor (GC) and sub-contractor (SC). The impact of construction activities on construction workers in the Nigeria construction industry as it precipitates into WMDs affects the rate of productivity. The paper uses historic data on unfavourable ergonomic practices and quantitative survey method (based on a designed questionnaire) to establish a criterion for reducing WMD’s in construction by providing an effective strategies to promote construction workplace health and safety. The study establishes various interventions on factors that negatively impact on the health and safety of construction workers. Based on the findings from empirical survey and the survey of literature, the study tends to establish a work organization that can influence process and activities in the construction industry through designing of work place to ameliorate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorder among its workers. Furthermore, the contractors’ perspective approach for health and safety as a panacea to reducing WMD’s is established. The information provides an insight into the contribution to safety and health of construction workers. The study establishes various interventions on factors that negatively impact on the health and safety of construction workers.

Keywords: Construction workers, Contractors, Design, Ergonomic practices, Health and Safety (H&S), Work organization, musculoskeletal disorders

DESIGN OF TWO-GLASS FOR APOCHROMATIC OPTICAL SYSTEM (Published)

Apochromatic designs of lens systems utilizing two optical materials are described. A method of glass selection for apochromatic optical systems with reduced chromatic aberration is present. This method is based on the glass maps by using a glass database (Schott glass) and an optical design program (OSLO) to help the optical designer to select optical glass types in a more efficient way. ‘Active’ glass maps can be used to compare glasses for special properties and to change glasses in the optical design process , and then using computer program(OSLO) to aid in the design of a lens and the validation results. The goal for this paper is to make glass selection easier to understand.

Keywords: Apochromatic, Design, Glass, Optical System

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND TESTING OF A LABORATORY SIZE HAMMER MILL (Published)

The laboratory size hammer mill was fabricated from locally available materials for crushing of minerals such as calcite, dolomite, limestone, granite and other materials of medium hardness. The crushing process is achieved by the use of a set of hammers in a crushing chamber which beats the mineral feeds into smaller particles small enough to pass through the aperture of the replaceable sieve positioned beneath the crushing chamber. The size aimed depends on the aperture of the replaceable screen. Based on the theoretical design, it was found that the main shaft speed of 913.5 rpm transmitted by a belt drive from a three horse power electric motor is suitable to crush effectively. A comparison of the products of the newly fabricated machine with those of a standard Denver laboratory jaw crusher shows that the crushing rate of the new machine is higher, though the standard machine produces coarse products. The results however indicated that the new machine can perform better in terms of products with improved design. The machine is portable, design to be power operated.

Keywords: Design, Fabrication, Laboratory Size Hammer Mill

EMBROIDERY DESIGN DEVELOPMENT THROUGH THE TYPICAL SIDOARJO BASED PRODUCTS CONSUMER PERCEPTION (Review Completed - Accepted)

Embroider is the result of industrial district of Sidoarjo East Java Province. But until now, the embroider design collection Sidoarjo still not yet developed. When not developed it will have an impact on lowering the interest to impose a embroidery design. This study aims to compare the perception of border Sidoarjo specificity based on previous research (Surjanti, 2007), socialize, perform amplification products, and filed patents.

This study used a qualitative approach. Subjects were 20 craftsmen from Sidoarjo and object of study is a distinctive embroidery designs from Sidoarjo. The results of this study: (1) perception of the activity obtained five types of embroidery design revisions, (2) dissemination of the results obtained by the design of the top ten results of embroidery products, and (3) the results of development activities and evaluation of the data obtained product strengths and weaknesses of the product results craftsmen, yield optimization techniques and embroidery production system

 

Keywords: Design, Embroidery, Sidoarjo