Tag Archives: Democracy

The Impact of Human Rights on Good Governance and Sustainable Development in Nigeria (Published)

Human rights and good governance are the salient elements of a well-functioning state and society. They are also mutually reinforced; for human rights principles provide a set of values to guide the work of government and other political and social actors. Good governance on the other hand is a key to sustainable development and without good governance human rights cannot be respected in a sustainable manner. The three concepts thus work hand in hand. However in countries like Nigeria where democracy and rule of law have not been fully nurtured the move towards implementing human rights and good governance principles into the daily functioning of state institutions can be a huge challenge. The probability that a nation will achieve the aims of sustainable development and participative democracy are all the greater if human rights are respected. The aim of this article is to ascertain the level of observance of respect of the human rights in Nigeria by the government authorities and other social actors and the impact such observance or otherwise has on governance and development in Nigeria. It is observed that though the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999 (as amended) makes an elaborate provision on human right, and that Nigeria has acceded to numerous international instruments on human rights, the problem of bad governance with the resultant inadequate development has a link with failure of the authorities that be, to adequately appreciate the requirements of human rights and apply them in governance. Furthermore a lot of the basic human rights as contained in Chapter II of the Nigerian Constitution are not enforceable, thus failure of the authorities to observe them cannot be questioned. It is advocated.

Keywords: Democracy, Good Governance, Government, Human Rights, Sustainable Development

The Challenges of Civil Society Organizations in Democratic Sustenance in Nigeria (Published)

The increasing spate of violence in the conduct of democracy in Nigeria is a clear indication of lack of active participation by the Civil Society Organisations (CSOs). The inability of the SCOs to compel the democratic institutions and their managers to respect the core values of democracy has significant implications for the nation’s nascent democracy and her citizens.  This concern necessitated an enquiry into the challenges confronting CSOs as impediments to the effective performance of their pivotal role in ensuring a sustained democratic practice.  The study adopted the Marxian Political Economy Approach which sees the economic condition of society as the primary determinant of its other structures, to explain the dilemma of the CSOs in influencing the electoral process. The investigation drew from secondary sources, and adopted the descriptive data analysis.  Findings showed that most of the civil society organisations have either been politicized, intimidated by repressive government or distabilised by internal crises that deviate their attention from their roles as watchdogs on political events. Key among the recommendations is that the ruling class should as a matter of expediency uphold the tenets of democracy to bear on the electoral process, by strengthening the democratic institutions to exist exclusively as state institutions rather than personalised structures; while the CSOs should consciously understand their role, and assume their rightful place to lay foundation for sustainable democracy in Nigeria.

Keywords: Democracy, civil society organisations, democratic sustenance

Using Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Adult Education for Promoting Right Democratic Values in Nigeria (Published)

Democracy as a system of government that recognizes the power of the people to rule is practiced in Nigeria by adults that are constitutionally defined as those who are 18 years of age and above. This paper observes that the people who should be in control of power have not recognized themselves as true power-holders who should be actively involved in democratic processes but are rather used by perceived “power-holders” in distorting democratic processes which bestowed power on them. This is attributed to lack of knowledge of the power bestowed on them by democracy to elect and remove any official who fails to protect their interests, welfare and aspirations. The paper establishes that this lack of knowledge stems from lack of quality information on democracy and its nexus and hence the bedrock of the prevailing democratic situations in Nigeria characterised by various negative democratic manoeuverings (such as electoral malpractices, denial of right to choose leaders or representatives, lack of freedom of speech, etc) leading to inability to deliver dividends of good governance to the people. This according to the paper leads to social ills and problems such as crimes, poverty, unemployment, etc. The paper proffers solution to this problem by proposing ways through which information and communication technology (ICT) could be used as a vehicle through which a large proportion of adults could be conscientized on the strength and power bestowed on them through democratic processes. The paper concludes that when people (adults) exercise their democratic powers and strength, dividends of good governance would be delivered while social vices and problems would be averted.

Keywords: Adult Education, Democracy, Democratic Values, Information and Communication Technology

The Role of Magico-Spiritual Powers in Understanding the Culture of Impunity and Lack of Transparency in Nigerian Politics (Published)

The culture of impunity and lack of accountability on the part of the Nigerian politician is simply incredible. While democratic tenets, the world over, presuppose uncompromising observance of the rule of law, accountability and transparency, the Nigerian experience stands as classical case of irony and paradox.  Thus, it deserves much more than a cursory interrogation, but an in-depth study. In order to understand the Nigerian situation, many researches have been carried out. Their conclusions point out corruption, weak institutional and legal framework, ethno-religious bias and inclinations as well as lack of free, fair and credible elections as factors responsible for the current state of affairs. However, the believe and indeed the practice of the Nigerian politician to indulge (almost incurably) in magico-spiritual activities in order to invoke powers that will enable them evade justice, mute public scrutiny and veil their culture of impunity and lack of transparency has received little or no deserving scholarly attention. Therefore, this paper examines this phenomenon and its impact on the body polity. Politicians and their allies, members of election petition tribunals, personnel of anti-graft agencies and magico-spiritual jobbers themselves attest to the endemic nature of the phenomenon. Interviews with these constitute primary source for this paper. Laced in segments of this paper are suggestions on how to put the practice of magico-spiritualism on the proper cause that will not be on a coalition part with democracy and good governance in Nigeria.

Keywords: Conflict, Democracy, Good Governance, impunity, magico-spiritual

The Role of Social Media towards Political Accountability in Pakistan: A Literature Review (Published)

Democracy is globally accepted form of government, especially when the technological development going to make this world a global village. Scholars think about the ideas of global democratic government, wherein short fall of democracy is ill-fated. However, political accountability is the essential characteristics of democracy and it cannot flourish without it. This paper adopts a qualitative approach by using qualitative content analysis and observation over social networking sites (SNS), in which democracy, accountability, and freedom of expression will extensively use. The extensive literature review indicates that social media facilitates the freedom of expression, provides opportunities of direct political participation, improves the electoral process and increase political accountability in authoritarian countries and emerging democracies. However, an emerging democracy like Pakistan, where social media trend is up surging and accountability condition is destitute. It is highly justified to investigate the role of social media towards political accountability.

Keywords: Democracy, Freedom Of Expression, Pakistan, Political Accountability, Social media

Whitman’s “Leaves of Grass”: An Irony of Inclusiveness (Published)

Although some believe that Walt Whitman’s “Leaves of Grass” is inclusionary democratic poem, it additionally is exclusionary. Widely read as carrying the idea of inclusive democracy and nationalism, the critics like   Betsy Erkkila defines him not only as an American but the world citizen in terms of his inclusive thoughts. But this claim of Whitman’s inclusiveness is ironically lacking in the poem, “Leaves of Grass” and in the reality. Whitman sounds rather sentimental than real in the poem. Though he seems to celebrate democracy, his idea of nationalism has failed to give comparatively equal space to the minorities of immigrants, African-Americans and Native Americans. Moreover, in his efforts to appear inclusive he sounds exclusive that has given an imperial tone to the poem. This paper aims at showing the gap between the ideal notion of nationalism and the problem of excluding minor nationalities in the poem. This contrast of Whitman’s ideal and the real will be discussed primarily with reference to the textual evidences and analysis with the ideas of critics. After some basic concepts of democracy and justice, the paper is to bring that issue into consideration.

Keywords: Democracy, Imperial, Inclusiveness, Minorities, Nationalism, Representation.

Vote in Brazil and General Elections 2018: Are the Pillars of Democracy in Danger (Published)

In one of the most controversial and disputed general elections in Brazil, more than 147 million voters will choose their representatives, on October 2018. For the first time in the Brazilian democratic government history, the far-right wing candidate, was attacked and stabbed in the middle of a campaign rally. Also unprecedented was the initiative of the former Brazilian left wing president, Lula da Silva, convicted and sentenced to 12-year imprisonment for money laundering and passive corruption, who was disputing the presidency from jail. In a democracy, however, no matter how fierce a presidential election is, any differences shall be resolved through vote. Therefore, given its importance to democracy, in this article we investigated the history of the vote in Brazil, from paper-based to electronic suffrage. We analyzed the different past voting systems, until the general elections 2018, where biometric identification was included successfully. Current facts and figures are presented in this single case study. Finally, recommendations for future research complete the present work.

Keywords: Democracy, General Elections, Vote

Corruption and Democratic Governance in Nigeria: The Nexus (Published)

This study was aimed at examining corruption and democratic governance in Nigeria. One of the greatest threats to socio-economic and political development of any nation is corruption.   Democratic governance on the other hand is based on the will of the people and it is generally agreed that it is the best form of governance suited for allowing people to live in dignity and freedom, a point that was articulated in the Millennium Declaration by the international community. With huge resource expansion, unparalleled and unprecedented corrupt practices, it is unthinkable to expect democracy to thrive and derive dividend therein. Not only are things very stressful and difficult but the design and reality of democratic governance appears more of a mirage. All these hinge on either ethics or morality. The choice is either democracy or corruption as they are diametrically opposed to each other. This unenviable status continues to assert negatively on the State and the growth of democracy despite the several strategies put in place by past and previous regimes to combat the scourge. The study adopts secondary sources of data collection for overall understanding of the subject matter. Literatures were gathered from works of scholars in the area of investigations under review. The paper argues that for corruption to be curtailed in Nigeria, the constitutional provisions which fosters constitutionalism, rule of law should be effectively enforced. The paper sums up with conclusions and other vital policy recommendations for effective democratic governance in Nigeria.

Keywords: Corruption, Democracy, Democratic governance

Examining the Need for Effective Communication and Structures for Leadership in the Legislative Service (Published)

The legislature, irrespective of clime or political configuration, incontrovertibly plays a strategic role in the growth and consolidation of democracy. This explains why the political circle expects much from the legislature. Owing to the strategic role of this institution, this paper, among other things, reveals the place of effective communication and effective legislative service structure in Nigeria. Understandably, effective communication is at the centre of effective legislative service. Using descriptive research design, the paper concludes that effective communication is pivotal to a productive legislative system in Nigeria. Based on this, it is recommended that lawmakers should break down legislative information into essential units and keep the chain of information transmission short. Again, it is also recommended that a two way communication process that encourages feedback should be preferred in the place of linear communication.

Keywords: Democracy, Effective Communication, Feedback, Legislative service

Governance, Corruption and the Democratic Order in Africa: The Case of Nigeria (Published)

The triumph of the democratic order in Africa will depend to a large extent on the capacity of stakeholders to tackle the ravages of corruption. Across the continent, the quest for economic and political development had been hampered by corruption on the part of the leaders and followers, thus making the democratic enterprise appear as condemned to being subverted, as it turns out, from within. The scourge appears intractable due to its prevalence, thus, encumbering most States in the continent. For decades, Nigeria’s has been performing below average in the transparency international index of corruption. At some point, Nigeria was oscillating between the first and second most corrupt nation in the world. This unenviable status continues to assert negatively on the State and the growth of democracy despite the several strategies put in place by past and previous regimes to combat the scourge. This paper therefore considers the hindrances of corruption to the development of the democratic order and explores the imperative of good governance in remedying the malaise.

Keywords: Corruption, Democracy, Elections, Good Governance, Leadership

Democracy and Human Rights in Nigeria: A Critical Inquiry (Published)

Democracy has been generally acclaimed as the best protector of human rights amongst all forms of government. In many democratic nations of the world this is evidential, but in Nigeria the story is different. Democratic government of Nigeria, with regard to the issue of human rights protection is not too different from military dictatorship. It has been observed and rightly too, that government agencies are the worst violators of human rights and tacitly backed by the government. This paper challenges the Nigerian government that was democratically elected to uphold her statutory and definitional responsibility of respecting, protecting and enhancing human rights of her citizens and punish decisively any abuses of human rights. The citizens also should not be complacent about this, they should protest legitimately against such violations bearing in mind that violation of their rights dehumanizes them which should not be the case.

Keywords: Abuses, Democracy, Human Rights, Nigerian Government, Violations

Towards A Critical Thinking-Based Curricular and Pedagogical Innovations for Sustaining Democracy in Nigeria (Published)

Democracy, in addition to being a political system is also a way of life that is so admired that it has become a global model. Unfortunately those ingredients and flavour that make democracy the global ideal are terribly lacking in Nigeria, in addition to democracy not having any stronghold in Nigeria. Using the philosophical method, the paper raises sign posts on how critical thinking based curricular and pedagogical innovations can be a relief in reinventing and sustaining democracy in Nigeria. The position of the paper is that there is no substitute to positive thinking and positive thinking especially at the evaluative, insightful and critical thinking levels, can proffer solutions for resolving the pessimism that surrounds democracy in Nigeria. The paper makes recommendations, part of which include developing learners’ curiosity for participation in the democratic processes, the development of learners autonomous moral thinking as well as identifying live problems that threaten democracy and making such the subjects of arguments, dialogues and deliberations

Keywords: Critical thinking, Curriculum, Democracy, Nigeria, Pedagogy

Needed Urgently: A Pedagogy for Boosting the Interests of Youths in Citizenship and Civic Education in Nigeria (Published)

Policies and policy directions in Nigeria are terribly shallow in terms of welfare considerations for the youths and the sustainable development of the Nigerian state. Adults who have been at the helm of affairs have been superlatively self-centered and this has consequently retarded general development in the Nigerian state in general and detrimentally hampered the development of the youths in particular. This paper makes a case for citizenship and civic education for the youths as a viable option for reversing this unfortunate trend. The paper extols the values of citizenship and civic education as needed innovations to affect the necessary changes and makes a case for urgent pedagogical re-engineering where the interests of the youths can be boosted in citizenship and civic education as a strategy to reverse the ugly trend. The paper proposes and recommends that such pedagogical strategies can focus on sensitizing the youths on the dangers that are inherent in their continued marginalization, making youths to think critically and analytically especially on how their participation in civic and democratic processes can reverse the trends in their favour, making social justice and good governance the focus of educational provision for youths and translating theory into practice by inculcating democratic norms of participation, commitment to learning, agreeing with others and accommodating divergent views of others.

Keywords: Citizenship Education, Civic Education, Democracy, Nigeria, Pedagogy, Policy, Politics, Youths

Political Islam and Democracy in Nigeria: Compatibility or Incompatibility? (Published)

The paper highlights the principles of Islam and that of democracy and argues that both are incompatible in a multi-religious country like Nigeria. Having discussed the concepts of political Islam, Sharia and democracy, the paper proceeds by identifying the inconsistency and ambiguity in the 1999 Constitution of Nigeria which, made the Sharia issue more problematic among the Christians and their Muslim counterparts. The paper prefers Nigeria being a Secular state rather than adopting a state religion which it believes can scuttle Nigeria’s nascent democracy.


Keywords: Democracy, Political Islam, Shariacracy

Judiciary and the Theory of Separation of Powers in Achieving Sustainable Democracy in Nigeria (The Fourth Republic) (Published)

Nigeria is a nation with a chequered history of democratic rule. The pressures mounted on the Nigerian political system since independence created instability in Nigerian polity. Hence the Judiciary could not carryout its roles effectively, the First, Second and Third Republics collapsed thus, paved way for the inevitability of military incursions in Nigerian politics, which truncated the Nigerian nascent democracy. Studies have shown that, in a democratic state, separation of powers is indispensable and the independence of the judiciary is paramount in achieving sustainable democracy. This study therefore investigated the impact of the separation of powers in achieving sustainable democracy in Nigeria State. The study used qualitative and content analysis method in analyzing the information generated for the study. Cases and instances from the content analysis showed that: the independence of the Judiciary helps in achieving sustainable democracy in Nigeria; Independent Judiciary enhances due process in a democratic state. Further analysis showed that incidences and court verdicts on issues relating to how the practice of separation of powers enhances the Judiciary to discharge its constitutionally stipulated roles in achieving sustainable democracy in Nigeria is convincing. This work therefore concluded that separation of powers enhances the efficiency of the Judiciary in Nigeria. The researchers recommend that the consolidation of democracy in Nigeria will depend on the commitment and ability of the Nigeria State to take extra measures to ensure that the theory and practice of Separation of Powers, and the Independence of the Judiciary is firmly established, respected and protected.

Keywords: Democracy, Judiciary, Nigeria, Separation of Powers, Sustainable Democracy

Party Conflicts and Democratic Consolidation in Nigeria (1999 – 2007) (Published)

In every democracy the world over, political parties are seen as the instruments of democratic process. Hence, their relevance in establishing a stable democratic order cannot be overemphasized. But since the inception of the present democratic rule in Nigeria, political parties have failed to perform their fundamental responsibilities for a number of reasons which include fragile party relations, uncoordinated party system, inter and intra-party squabbles, among others. Notably, party crises have remained common features of politics in the country. But, like previous experiences where inter-party crises were the order of the day, the current democratic exercise has witnessed a predominance of intra-party conflicts, to the extent that the big parties including AD, ANPP, APGA and PDF have had and are still having their own fair share, the magnitude of which is based on the size and strength of the party. These crises had intensified unhealthy competition among the political parties and by implication, affected their functions. Exploring secondary data, this study examines the implications of inter and intra-party conflicts for democratic consolidation. While the thesis recognizes that effective political parties are essential for a nascent democracy, stable inter and intra party relations are sine qua non in consolidating democratic rule in Nigeria.

Keywords: Conflict, Democracy, Democratic Consolidation, Nigeria, Party Crises

Political Islam and Democracy in Nigeria: Compatibility or Incompatibility (Published)

The paper highlights the principles of Islam and that of democracy and argues that both are incompatible in a multi-religious country like Nigeria. Having discussed the concepts of political Islam, Sharia and democracy, the paper proceeds by identifying the inconsistency and ambiguity in the 1999 Constitution of Nigeria which, made the Sharia issue more problematic among the Christians and their Muslim counterparts. The paper prefers Nigeria being a Secular state rather than adopting a state religion which it believes can scuttle Nigeria’s nascent democracy.

Keywords: Democracy, Political Islam, Shariacracy

An Evaluation of the Challenges of Representation to Public Policy Formulation and Implementation in Nigeria (Published)

The study examined how the challenges faced by the democratic principle of representation affect public policy formulation and implementation. If it were possible for constituencies to directly deal with governments in making their inputs in public policy formulation and implementation, they would have been better disposed to pass on their felt needs for inclusion in the formulation and implementation of public policies. But since this is not possible for logistic reasons associated with the governmental processes, representation has thus become inevitable. However, much as representation is meant to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of governance, it faces challenges that limit its ability to wholly pass across the wishes and needs of the constituencies for inclusion in government policies and programmes. In examining these challenges, questionnaire were administered to 480 respondents who are politically conscious with a minimum of first degree graduate education. The location of the survey was Enugu state of Nigeria and respondents were free to respond to the questions as it applied to their various constituencies. The study found out, among other things, that there is hardly existing constituency benchmarks which guide representatives, against which their representative functions are evaluated. Secondly, there are no defined channels through which constituencies regularly communicate their needs and issue positions to be considered in policy formulation and programmes to their representatives. Thirdly, there are no functional machinery charged with regular assessment of legislators to ascertain their level of compliance or otherwise with the issue position of their constituencies. Fourthly, the level of confidence constituents have in their representatives to take the right decision/position on issues concerning their constituencies is significantly low. Fifthly, constituents do not know the voting pattern of their representatives in the various Legislatures to ascertain their level of responsiveness to constituency needs. Finally, the interest of political parties that produced candidates for election into the Legislature over the years do not reflected the interest of the constituencies. In view of the foregoing findings, the study recommended the need for constituency-articulated benchmark to guide representative activities. Secondly, the electoral process should allow independent candidacy to make it possible for constituencies to elect candidates with credible character that win the confidence of their constituents. Thirdly, there should be a regular channel of communication between representatives and their constituencies which should also serve the purpose of evaluating the performance of representatives. Fourthly, a voting method in the legislature that makes it possible for constituency members to access the voting records of their representatives need be introduced. Fifthly, the political system needs to evolve a system that allows a fuller public participation in the crafting, implementation and evaluation of public policies.

Keywords: Constituency, Democracy, Governance, Issue Position, Public Policy, Public Programmes, Representation., Representatives


The quest for a system of government that should take into cognizance the recognition of each individual brought about the notion of democracy. As a concept it has become a cliché to our system both for civilized and unenlightened minds, with little regard for its meaningful application. Going through some conceptual analysis, we submit that the idea of participatory democracy exists independently of a people’s system of government. Thus, if we must be said to be democratic in our polity, we ought to conform our practices to the principles of democracy and not compel democratic principles to fit into our system.

Keywords: Democracy, Democratic Education, Leadership, public


The paper identified globalization as the free-market induced paradigm that brought about the desire to cut the cost of running governments all over the world, and subsequently influenced the emergence of the New Public Management Administrative Reform Paradigm in Britain, USA, Austria, New Zealand and Nigeria in 2003. The paper further traced the development of Public Administration down to New Public Administration; identify and compared the Traditional Administration with the New Public Management. In addition, tables containing the statutory allocations to the National Assembly of Nigeria from 2005 to 2013; the Law Makers Salaries and Allowances; the List of Federal Ministers and their salaries and allowances were conspicuously displayed. Finally, the paper recommended that there is the need for a drastic reduction in the cost of running all the tiers of governments in Nigeria; the salaries and allowances of Legislators, Ministers, Commissioners, Special Advisers and Assistants; a reduction in the number of Federal Ministers to twenty together with the need to abolish the position of the Minister of State because the Federal Ministers can ably be assisted by their respective Permanent Secretaries.

Keywords: Administrative Reforms, Cost Of Governance, Democracy, New Public Management, Nigeria