Tag Archives: Demand

The Socioeconomic Impacts and Implications of the COVID-19 Pandemic and Omicron Variant: The Case of Sudan (Published)

Viruses mutate over time, and SARS-CoV-2 is no exception. Mutations in viruses occur naturally, and the more they circulate, the more likely they are to mutate. This study mainly focuses on assessing the socio-economic effects and implications of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the newely emerged Omicron variant in Sudan. A qualitative research approach was adopted in which a combination of secondary and primary data were collected. In this regard, a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed articles was carried out to collect the secondary data. While semi-structured personal interviews were conducted with key stakeholders. Furthermore, purposive/judgmental sampling was utilized to select interviewees, and their responses were analyzed using thematic content analysis. The findings of this study showed that Sudan’s economy was already stressed before the occurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic, due to currency crises, high inflation rates, and the inability of the authorities to provide subsidies. Moreover, the outbreak of coronavirus and subsequent lockdown ,in the first wave, had further worsened the socio-economic situation. The country suffered due to a sharp downfall in productivity, supply, and demand. All of which had adversely affected business sustainability, consumers’ preference and consumption, remittance inflows, and resulted in mass poverty in rural areas. Also, the emergence of Omicron variant have placed the global health systems on high alert. Therefore,this study proposes a framework to extend the research on the macro and microeconomic factors, that shape up the socioeconomic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and Omicron variant. Furthermore, it recommended that Sudan’s poliy makers must reinforce and rebuild the health system as quickly as possible. To aid the country in recovering from the COVID-19 pandemic and any other catastrophic epidemic. In addition, the government must reform rules and invest in public health, economic stimulus, and social safety nets.

Keywords: COVID-19, Demand, Socioeconomic, business sustainability, omicron variant, supply

Mathematical and Statistical Analysis of Farm Level Agricultural Sector in Bangladesh under Uncertainty (Published)

This study presents three different mathematical models for profit optimization of agricultural products in Bangladesh. To develop a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model and analyze this model for two situation of demand uncertainty. Considering demand will be known before production and demand will be known after production. For the mentions of two cases, we investigate the change of solution applying least demand, maximum perhaps demand and extreme demand scenarios. I think this is real life problem and this analysis will be helpful for all types of agricultural producers.  The proposed MILP model is to maximize the total profit and also to estimate the profitable production locations. The formulated MILP model were solved by A Mathematical Programming Language (AMPL) and results obtained by appropriate solver MINOS. Numerical example with the sensitivity of several parameters has been deployed to validate the models. Results show that maximum perhaps demand scenario gets better solution according to our expected value compare of other two scenarios.  

Keywords: Agricultural products, Demand, Mixed integer linear program, Uncertainty, optimization

Estimating Money Demand for Ghana (Published)

The study suggested that money demand function for Ghana using M1 and M2 remained relatively unstable between 1991 and 2011 as evidenced by trends in recursive residual and the cumulative sums of squared residuals derived from the estimated models. However, real money demand function for broad money (M2+) was found to be stable relative to real money   demand functions estimated using for M1 and M2 as dependent variables. The study therefore concluded that real money demand function for M1 and M2 are remained relatively unstable in Ghana compared with real money demand function for broad money which exhibits some degree of stability.

Keywords: Demand, Money, Recursive, Unit Root

1996’s Nonparty Caretaker Government Movement and the Role of Opposition in Bangladesh: A Politico-Legal Analysis (Published)

Role of opposition is very important in democracy. In parliamentary system opposition operates a parallel government for ensuring good governance in the country. In Bangladesh with the start of second inning of parliamentary system in 1991 people expected practice of peaceful democratic behaviour from the political parties. But opposition parties played reversed role in new system. Awami League, Jatiya Party and Jamaat-e-Islam seized the normal life of the people for executing their own political agenda. And in the name of ensuring voting right of the people they created unbearable atmosphere in the country and thereby forced the BNP government to adopt non-party caretaker government in the constitution. This paper is intended to show how opposition parties realized their illogical and irrational demand in the name of democratic movement in 1996.

Keywords: Caretaker government. Chief Adviser, Demand, Formula., Free and Fair Election, Opposition Movement

Economic Aspects of Certified Polish Cultural Products In Light Of Research (Published)

The purpose of researching a number of Polish tourist-oriented, high quality products was to determine the key economic factors for cultural tourism improvement in Poland. The results of research studies, which can assist tourism enterprises further develop the highest quality products of cultural tourism, have indicated that modern day tourist’s preferences are high-quality products. The studies have proven that the most important single factor influencing high quality products supply, was local authorities’ support of the tourist-oriented organizations that have developed the brands based on high quality) cultural products. The unique features of this research has been confirmed by A. Mikos von Rohrscheidt based on his studies performed from 2010 to 2014. These studies which are based on analyses of monographs and key scientific papers on cultural tourism published both in Poland and abroad.

Keywords: Cultural Products, Demand, Market, Price-Setting, supply


The Irish potato is a prominent food security and cash crop in Kenya currently second to Maize in importance as the largest consumed staple in the country. The crop, grown mostly by smallholder farmers, provides a source of food, income and employment to many Kenyans. A study to assess the market dynamics of potatoes in the country was carried out between July and September 2013. The Agricultural Product Value Chain (APVC) approach was employed in which stakeholders at critical levels of the potato value chain were interviewed. Purposive judgmental sampling of three producing counties and five consuming towns was done due to their high level of activity. A standardized questionnaire and an interview schedule were used to gather data. Descriptive statistics and proportions were used to describe the results. A total of 570 respondents were interviewed but due to overlapping roles played by some stakeholders operating at more than one level of the value chain, the number of respondents (considered on role play) rose to 679. Results revealed that some potato varieties were popular across the country due to qualities demanded by the market like long shelf life, size and shape of tubers as well as quality of end products like potato chips and crisps. Producers preferred the shortest marketing channel especially direct sales or through organized marketing groups while production depended on price of inputs especially seed, cooking qualities and buyer demands. Demand was found high throughout the year as supply fluctuated with seasons. A number of constraints across the value chain were identified including huge price differentials between farm gate and market sometimes influenced by middlemen, the use of extended bags sometimes weighing up to 200 kilograms, poor enforcement of regulations, inappropriate and inadequate storage facilities and poor physical conditions of the markets. Despite the constraints, the future of the potato business was described as bright with most players in the value chain declaring improvement in business over the previous five year period. The findings had implications on all value chain players and stakeholders

Keywords: Demand, Product value chain, Stakeholders, middlemen, preferences, supply


The thrust of this study was to articulate the base of knowledge and empirically test the relationship between the component of educational costs and the demand for private secondary education in Akwa Ibom State. Three null hypotheses were formulated to direct the study. Six hundred students and thirty principals were drawn, through proportionate stratified random sampling technique from three senatorial districts in the study area were used. Data collection was through structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Statistics and population t-test analysis at .05 level of significance. The findings showed that there was a statistically significant relationship between educational costs and the demand for private secondary education in Akwa Ibom. Based on the findings, recommendations were made including that government should award scholarship to students in private secondary schools as this would reduce the effect of high cost of private schools on the youths of low socio-economic status.

Keywords: Demand, Educational Cost, Indirect Cost, Opportunity Cost