Tag Archives: Delay

A General Guide for Communication System Engineers to Improve QoS (Published)

The Quality of Service (QoS) is one of most important issues in providing an acceptable level of service. Communication engineers need a guide for action to improve QoS parameters such as data rate, bit error rate, latency, and jitter. Improving QoS includes a set of steps that should be performed by an engineer; these steps are belonging to two categories, system and network steps. In this paper we developed a flow chart of a general guide to improve QoS in a digital communication system, based on our knowledge of the modern communication system and impairments that lead to system degradation. We outline the options and advices to approach the subject of QoS in digital transmission.

Keywords: Data Rate, Delay, Jitter., QOS, bit error rate

The Effect of Road Traffic Delay on Supply Chain Performance of Manufacturing Firms in Lagos State, Nigeria (Published)

This study examined the trend of traffic growth and its resultant effect on supply chain performance on manufacturing firms in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study adopted purposive and simple random sampling technique. Firms along transport congestion corridors were purposively selected. and workers in the selected firms were randomly selected. Sampled firms distributors and customers were also used to gather information regarding supply chain performance. A total number of 225 respondents were randomly sampled from 3,981 workers of two firms to solicit information on how congestion affects supply chain performance, analysis was done using multiple regression analyze. Result shows that all identified variable were statistically significant except goods returned and fuel consumption at p<0.005. From the findings, the study concluded that there is inverse relationship between traffic congestion and supply chain performance. This implied that as traffic congestion increases it have a resultant effect on supply chain performance. Therefore, the study recommended that government and other stakeholders should see congestion as a collective task in order to improve free flow of traffic that would significantly improve supply chain performance both in local and national economy.

Keywords: Congestion, Delay, Logistics, Order fulfilment, Supply Chain, Transport

Evaluation of Traffic Flow and Traffic Network Management System in Jordan (Published)

Amman city, the capital of Jordan has suffered from the impacts of highway mode of transportation. Traffic network management system aim to reduce traffic congestion, delay, fuel consumption, and air and noise pollution. Also, to improve the level of service (LOS) of the urban streets and intersections. This research paper is an engineering project management study; it is about improving traffic network management system in Al Shmesani district in Amman. It was conducted on a network of two main arterials with eight signalized intersections. They are Al Kindi street continued with Prince Shaker Bin Zaid street and Al Sharif Naser Bin Jamel street. The traffic data was collected from the government records at several departments in Amman Municipality and Directorate of Public Security. Highway Capacity Software HCS2000 and updated Synchro-8 programs software were used to evaluate the traffic conditions at each intersection for years 2012 and 2022. The evaluation shows that the intersections are operating at LOS F with high delay time and high saturation flow. Two alternatives were used to improve the traffic conditions. The first one is to change the existing timing plan of the traffic signal to optimize timing plan, this showed little improvement in traffic condition. The second alternatives are to modify the geometric conditions with changing and optimizing the timing plan of the signalized intersections. It showed good improving in the traffic conditions and saving in delay time and fuel consumption at the existing and the future conditions. The Level of Service LOS’s of the intersections were improved from LOS F to LOS C, D and E. It showed also the average overall saving in vehicle delay is about 87.75% and the saturation flow is improved at all intersections to less than one. The fuel consumption is also reduced with about 93%.

Keywords: Air Pollution, Delay, Fuel Consumption, Highway Mode of Transportation, Level of Service (LOS), Noise Pollution, Saturation Flow., Signalized Intersections, Traffic Congestion, Traffic Network Management System, Urban Streets


Currently, climate change and its impacts is a key issue in Ethiopia. Adaptation to climate change is making a system suitable to moderate the impact of climate change or deal with the consequence or to take advantage of new opportunities. In line with this, the research has assessed the role of watershed management for climate change adaptation in Adwa in the case of mariamshewito Watershed. To address the above objective, the study used both qualitative and quantitative data type. In order to collect valuable information, semi structured questionnaire, focus group discussion, key informant guide checklist and observation tools from both primary and secondary data sources were applied. Similarly, different statistical methods such as percentage of frequencies, bar graphs, X 2 test, independent and paired sample T-Test and one way ANOVAs were used. The key finding of the research presents that due to different interventions the livelihood of the community was diversified and enhanced especially; income, soil fertility, crop productivity, forest, water and food availability become improved. Even if it has some gaps in the process of implementation such as lack of linkage between sectors, lack of targeting on the poor, young and women participation, weak stakeholder linkage. It is concluded that the watershed management can play a significant role to enhance household’s livelihood and cope with climate change impacts. Then, to fill the gap and go along the sustainability of the watershed, the study recommended based on the findings.

Keywords: Cancellation, Delay, Diversion, Impacts, Monsoon, Thunderstorm


This research work evaluates the impacts of thunderstorms to flight operations in Port-Harcourt International Airport. This study focused on the monthly and annual occurrences of thunderstorms, trend/pattern of thunderstorm and its influence to the number of flight diversions, delays and cancellations. In other to evaluate this impact, six years data on thunderstorm frequency and the number of flight diversions, delays and cancellations were obtained. The statistical analyses employed were the Simple and Multiple bar charts and Pearson’s product moment correlation. From the analysis, it was observed that thunderstorms occur mostly in the rainy season months (monsoon periods) with an increasing trend within the years due to the meridionial movement of the weather/ITD zones. The study revealed that thunderstorm accounted for 32% of flight cancellation with 218 occurrences, 0.2% of diversion with 291 occurrences and 24% of delays with 526 occurrences at the airport from 2008-2013. From the Analysis, thunderstorms have a greater influence on the number of flight cancellations and delays than on diversions with the correlation value of r=0.57, 0.49 and -0.04 respectively. The study concluded that thunderstorms occur in the study area during monsoon periods and it has more impact on delay and cancellations than on diversions.

Keywords: Cancellation, Delay, Diversion, Impacts, Monsoon, Thunderstorm

Accounting Procedural Bottlenecks and Delay in Payment System in Tertiary Institutions in Ondo State, Nigeria (Published)

Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria have been passing through crisis which had threatened the ideals of the institutions. The issue of delay or prolong payment or refund of incurred expenditure to a member of staff of any institutions either for attending training / conferences or for the upkeep of an institutions has been a subject of discuss in recent time. Often time a member of staff is deprived of attending training and conferences which they are due for and qualified to attend either due to lack of funds or more often as a result of late approval and release of funds. The difficulty involved in accessing fund in our institutions can be ascribed to the unnecessary bureaucracy/ bottlenecks created within the system. This has undoubtedly caused a setback to the growth of our institutions. The study was carried out to find out the factors responsible for the delay and suggest ways for improvement. The study was a case study, survey design while the analysis follows the empirical causal design. Five randomly selected institutions in Ondo state were sampled for the study. 100 copies of structured questionnaires designed on a 5-point likert rating scales were distributed to the respondents. 94 copies of the questionnaires were duly filled and returned. Data obtained from the questionnaires were presented in tables and analysed with the use of descriptive statistics and Pearson Correlations. The study reveals that the delay in payment/ refund of staff entitlements was due to major management bottlenecks or bureaucracy and to a little extent a kind of constraints from the bursary and audit units.

Keywords: Accounting, Bottlenecks, Delay, Payment System, Tertiary Institutions