Forest provides livelihoods for millions of people worldwide, through provision of different products. However, their diversity and area coverage are highly declined through time. Deforestation, invasive species and land degradation are the main threats accelerated plant diversity loss. Like most countries in the Sahelian region Ethiopia is affected by these factors heavily and finally resulted desertification, poverty and natural resource losses. About 75 percent of the countries land mass is estimated to have been affected by the threat of desertification. To overcome these problems efforts has been made to launch afforestation and conservation programs. So, the purpose of this review is to present threats of plant diversity and forest conservation in Ethiopia.