Tag Archives: Decentralization

Public Administration and Local Government in Post-Communist Era in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo and Serbia (Published)

Public administration reform is one of the main elements of structural reforms in the public sector, in an effort to achieve long-term sustainability of public finance and establish a sound business environment and to increase the quality and efficiency of the public services to the citizens.Public Administration Reform is a very broad concept a very comprehensive and include process changes in areas such as organizational structures, decentralization, personnel management, public finance, results-based management, regulatory reforms,  revision of the civil service statute ect.Decentralization is a very important element of  the Public Administration Reform as a whole and have a high importance in the entire process. Because of this importance and the big complexity of the issue in this paper I will analyze only the decentralization and local government reform as part of Public Administration Reform. All other pillars that represent Public Administration Reform needs also a special and deep analyze as well.From the mid-1980s onwards, a wave of decentralization reforms swept across the developing world, aimed at transferring responsibilities, resources and authority from higher to lower levels of government. In April 1996, the United Nations General Assembly, at its resumed 50th session, adopted resolution 50/225 on Public Administration and Development. The resolution confirmed the vital importance of strengthening public administration. Decentralization of governance is an important part of the process.Decentralization and local governance are recognized as basic components of democratic governance as providing the enabling environment in which decision-making and service delivery can be brought closer to local people and a very important pillar of Public Administration. Decentralized governance is commonly regarded as a process of transferring powers, functions, responsibilities, and resources from central to local government and other entities on local level. From the organizational point of view, it is a process of   restructuring of authority, so that there is a system of co-responsibility between institutions of governance at the central, regional and local levels, thus increasing the overall quality and effectiveness of the system of governance, while increasing the authority and capacities of sub-national levels. Decentralized governance provides the legal, administrative and fiscal frameworks for the empowerment of people and their institutions at sub-national levels, from regional to local.The Millennium Declaration, upon which the Millennium Goals are based, recognizes democratic governance, of which public administration is a key component, as central to the achievement of these goalsEach country followed its own trajectory related to historic legacies, geographic features, political factors, and prevailing socio-economic conditions and culture. This paper presents the characteristics of Public Administration and Local Government Reforms in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo and Serbia. (all countries of Western Balkan) in Post-Communist Era.In Western Balkan, part of  the former Soviet Union, decentralization has been part of the political and economic transformation process,  after 1989/1990 from a socialist system to a market economy and had to cope with three fundamental transformations;   from a centrally planned state economy to a private market economy;   from authoritarian centralized rule to a pluralist democracy; and   from party and state-dominated societal organization to a relatively autonomous civil society. Additionally this countries face two development challenges: first, emerged from a decade of conflict and crisis, which influenced the economic, social and political life and structures and second, delayed transition from their socialist systems presents specific significant needs regarding reforms in their economies and public administration. The methodology used is the descriptive one as well as, analyze and comparative, based on secondary empirical data.The conclusion of this paper is that during the last years it is evident a visible progress regarding local government decentralization reform in counties analyzed. This progress has also positively affected their membership status towards EU. But the progress made so far has been slow and is still far from real decentralization parameters. Burdened with ethnic and nationalist conflicts the decentralization reforms are characterized by fragmented structures with unclear division of levels and powers, and non-existent accountability mechanisms.

Keywords: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Decentralization, Kosovo, Post-Communist Era, Serbia, Western Balkan

Citizens’ Participation in the Decentralization Process in Ghana (Published)

Participation in decision-making is the root of democratization, as democratization is widely believed to be rooted in decentralization. As such, citizens’ participation in the decentralization process will bring governance closer to the people. The focus of the study was to explore the views and understandings of citizens about Ghana’s decentralization process. The researcher used the case study design for the study. Both questionnaire and interview protocol were used for data gathering. One hundred and six people in the area were conveniently sampled to become respondents in the study. For the method of data analysis, the researcher used tables and percentages.  The study found out that nearly 25% of the citizens have no or very little understanding of the decentralization process. Even though majority of the citizens took part in local elections, the citizens were not part of the decision making process, planning of developmental projects and paying taxes/levies to the district assembly. The non-performance of Unit Committee Members were found to be the cause of citizens’ non-participation in the decentralization programme even though there were other factors that generally affected the programme in the North Tongu District. The study recommended that the need for some more education in the Decentralization Process for all citizens.          

Keywords: Citizen, Decentralization, Ghana, Participation, Stakeholders

Field Experience of Agricultural Communication Methods and Attitudes toward the New Trends in Extension in Syria (Published)

The role of agricultural extension has always been a hot topic and under debate for all agricultural specialists, simply because of its vital role in implementing the agricultural policies and rural development, because it is the linkage between the rural community and the organizations involved in rural development and agricultural sector in both farming and non-farming perspectives.

This research is divided to two basic sections; each is divided to two sub-categories as follows:

  • The first part is dedicated to communication methods
  • The second part is dedicated to new trends in global economy in terms of its influence on agriculture and rural development.

The main findings of this research are: Extension staff lacks to sufficient training qualitatively and quantitatively with social and economic constraints, which makes a reform of the current system is a must to overcome insufficiencies in different areas.

 

Keywords: Communication Methods, Constraints, Decentralization, Globalization, ICTs, Pluralism, Privatization, Reform, extension

The Effects of Organizational Structure on the Performance of Organizations (Published)

An organization can be likened to a building whose strength is determined by the structure and frames which holds it. The structure is the manner in which interrelated elements (resources) are arranged so that the building can be stable, resist stress and it provides the right form. To this end, for the performance of an organization to be effective, it is important to understand the right manner in which interrelated elements (structure) in the specific organization is arranged. To measure the performance of the organization, dependent variables such as sales, profit, and customer satisfaction will be considered. Also, the study utilized independent variables centralization and formalization organizational structures. This is to show the effects of the dependent variables on the independent variable. The research adopted quantitative design and applied mono method which brought about numerical data generated from questionnaire administered. The population of this study comprises of all staff of Covenant Micro Finance Bank as well as the customers of the banks. Total sum of 354 sample size comprising of both employees (51) and customers (303) of Covenant Micro Finance Bank is the sample size. The propositions assumed for this study are that: there is no relationship between organizational centralization and organizational customer satisfaction, there is no relationship between organizational centralization and organizational profit, there is no relationship between organizational formalization and organizational customer satisfaction and that there is no relationship between organizational formalization and organizational profit. Also, among the secondary data collected are views of various management researchers. As a result of the primary and secondary data collected, the study recommends that organizations should adopt decentralization structure and reduce formalization in the work place.

Keywords: Decentralization, Organization, Organizational Performance, Organizational structure, formalization.

Job Involvement: Attitudinal Outcome of Organizational Structural Factors (Published)

Healthcare has always been in the priority of individuals, society and nation. It’s importance is endorsed by the status which is given to the health care professionals that is second God on earth. Health care as a Nobel service is provided by specifically skilled professionals who are working in a stressful condition that too day and night. These professionals are not super humans and are also gets influenced by work environment. Present study was conducted on medical staff working in not-for-profit public hospitals (N=300) in northern India. Study explored the influence of decentralization, coordination and work autonomy on job involvement among health care professionals. Results revealed that structural factors (Co-ordination & work autonomy) significantly predicted perceived levels of job involvement. Results also highlighted the significance of co-ordination and work at their own, which may be promoted by hospital administrators for getting positive outcomes through increasing job involvement of employees. Findings of the present study is very much helpful to the health care administrators for taking strategic directions and forming the organizational policies related to HRM in government hospitals, so that work climate of government hospital will become facilitating for increasing job involvement among employees further their performance as well. Study has important implications for government health care sector, as large section of population of India depends on public sector hospitals for their health care.

Keywords: Coordination, Decentralization, Job Involvement, Job attitude, Work autonomy

GOVERNMENTAL DECENTRALIZATION IN THE ALBANIAN LEGAL AND FISCAL DIMENSION CASE STUDY (ELBASAN MUNICIPALITY) (Published)

The administrative and executive activity of the state is so vast and multilateral, that it cannot be carried out or borne by just the central public administration bodies. Therefore in addition to state bodies of the central government as part of the public administration bodies a number of local administration bodies are set up and they represent the links of the Albanian Republic administrative device. The local government is a very important topic among citizens and this because we are directly or indirectly affected by it. This not only because we pay the local taxes that fill the offers of the local government, but also through the services that we as users and consumers receive from it. The development of local units promotes the development of natural resources and the will of sharp minds to do something new and better. Albania has already been introduced to the path of the European integration reforms, which are dictating essential structural and social-economical changes, where among other things there is also included the decentralization and local autonomy. As regarding to decentralization, it has emerged as a need to delegate responsibilities from central to local level and its aim is to improve governance. Having these responsibilities and powers in most of the cases has helped increasing the power efficiency, the level of democracy, the distribution of responsibilities and bringing the decision-making closer to people. However the decentralization process has mostly helped to increase the quantity and quality of services offered to citizens and in this way responding in a better way to their needs and interests. To talk about the local government decentralization, means to treat a much discussed problem, which remains evasive in some aspects, and sometimes difficult to understand. For this reason, in this article we will be briefly introducing the meaning of decentralization in the Albanian dimension. We will also concentrate on the achievements in the legal and fiscal aspects as well as the advantages and disadvantages of this process.

Keywords: Achievements, Decentralization, Fiscal process, Legal process

Governmental decentralization in the Albanian legal and fiscal dimension Case study (Elbasan Municipality) (Review Completed - Accepted)

The administrative and executive activity of the state is so vast and multilateral, that it cannot be carried out or borne by just the central public administration bodies. Therefore in addition to state bodies of the central government as part of the public administration bodies a number of local administration bodies are set up and they represent the links of the Albanian Republic administrative device. The local government is a very important topic among citizens and this because we are directly or indirectly affected by it. This not only because we pay the local taxes that fill the offers of the local government, but also through the services that we as users and consumers receive from it. The development of local units promotes the development of natural resources and the will of sharp minds to do something new and better. Albania has already been introduced to the path of the European integration reforms, which are dictating essential structural and social-economical changes, where among other things there is also included the decentralization and local autonomy.

As regarding to decentralization, it has emerged as a need to delegate responsibilities from central to local level and its aim is to improve governance. Having these responsibilities and powers in most of the cases has helped increasing the power efficiency, the level of democracy, the distribution of responsibilities and bringing the decision-making closer to people. However the decentralization process has mostly helped to increase the quantity and quality of services offered to citizens and in this way responding in a better way to their needs and interests.

To talk about the local government decentralization, means to treat a much discussed problem, which remains evasive in some aspects, and sometimes difficult to understand. For this reason, in this article we will be briefly introducing the meaning of decentralization in the Albanian dimension. We will also concentrate on the achievements in the legal and fiscal aspects as well as the advantages and disadvantages of this process.

 

Keywords: Achievements, Decentralization, Fiscal process, Legal process