|Most industrial process that uses DC Motor requires that DC Motor operates at a desired speed depending on the load and this speed should be sustained during the operational process however, a significant deviation from the desired speed trajectory was observed on the speed characteristic of DC Motor when acted upon by a load. This paper is aim at investigating the best controller for controlling the speed of a Separately Excited DC Motor in which four different controllers were deployed; the classical Proportional Integral (PI) Controller, Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Based Controller and the Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) Based Controller. The PI controller was designed by tuning its parameters in MATLAB Simulink in which the proportional and the integral gains were obtained for the best performance as 100.83 and 1750.45 respectively whereas the ANN and the ANFIS controllers were trained to mimic the desired plant input and output relationship. The FLC was designed to have single input which is the error signal and single output which is the speed using five membership function which give rise to five fuzzy rules based on Mamdani principle. A transient analysis was carried out on individual controllers using a speed reference of 1600 rpm to 2200 rpm in steps size of 200 rpm and it was observed that the ANFIS controller demonstrated a higher level of performance in tracking the input reference with an average percentage overshoot of 18.25%, a settling time of 1.446 seconds and a steady state error of 0.1%.|
Solar energy is very important means of expanding renewable energy resources. In this paper is described the design and construction of a microcontroller based solar panel tracking system. Solar is an on conventional source of energy, considering this we have developed solar panels so that we can full fill our electricity need. But due to revolution of the earth, solar source i.e. sun does not face the panel continuously hence less electricity is produced. The energy panel should face the SUN till it is present in a day. The problem above can be solved by our system by automatic tracking the solar energy. The block diagram below shows system architecture it consist of a LDR sensor senses max solar power which is being given to the Microcontroller through the ADC which digitizes the LDR output. Controller then takes the decision according to then algorithm and tilts the panel towards the direction of the max energy given by LDR with the help of DC Motor. The Motor is used to rotate the LDR to sense the max solar power. A Solar Tracker is basically a device onto which solar panels are fitted which tracks the motion of the sun across the sky ensuring that the maximum amount of sunlight strikes the panels throughout the day. The system is able to track and follow the Sunlight intensity in order to get maximum solar power at the output regardless motor speed.