Cycad Aulacaspis Scale (CAS) Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi as a major pest of Sago Palm Cycas spp. in Nigeria (Published)
Cycad aulacaspis scale (Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi) is native to the Southeast Asia specifically Thailand. Due to the trade in cycad plants for ornamental use in the world, it has been introduced widely in Asia, North America, the Caribbean, Europe, Pacific Islands, Ivory Coast and South Africa. Infestation by this scale can kill cycads in only a few months. Its introduction to these countries endangered the ornamental cycad-growing industry. In 2014, an introduced scale insect (Cycad aulacaspis scale) was discovered damaging cycads in a Bank premise, Port Harcourt. Survey was conducted on eight states (Cross River State, Rivers State, Abuja, Edo state, Akwa-Ibom state, Bayelsa state, Delta state and Lagos state) in Nigeria and report of severe damage was recorded. Management methods (cultural, chemical and biological) employed to manage the infestation proves ineffective as the scale insect was significantly seen three weeks after. The scale insect outnumbered their natural enemy tiny black lady beetle (Rhyzobius lophanthae) in these sampled locations and totally covers the entire plant within two months in a whitewashed scale-like appearance leading to chlorotic-yellow-brown leaves and eventual death of the plant. Therefore, this paper is aimed at reporting and creating awareness of the presence and outbreak of this insect pest (Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi) in Nigeria. Also, instant remedial measures should be taken to reduce the spread of this scale insect (Cycad aulacaspis scale) to other parts of Africa as to reduce the distribution of the scale insect on cycad species in this region.
Survey on the Outbreak of Anoplocnemis curvipes on the leaves of Bitter leaf in RSU Research Farm, Rivers State (Published)
A survey on the infestation of a polyphagous insect pest Anoplocnemis curvipes was conducted in bitter leaf garden located at Rivers State University Teaching and Research farm. This piercing and sucking insect severely damaged the young shoots, petiole and stems of bitter leaf thereby causing wilting and death of the plants in Rivers State University vegetable (bitter leaf) garden. Lambda-cyhalothrin insecticide was applied on the infested bitter leaf using Knapsack sprayer at a recommended dosage to manage the insect pest, 116 nymph/adult A. curvipes were counted after the application. As a result of the severity of the pest attack, 100% yield loss was recorded in the garden. Thus, this survey is reporting its damage as a pest alert and also to create awareness of the presence of this notorious polyphagous pest A. curvipes in our garden as a major insect pest in our agro-ecological environment.
Survey of cowpea growing areas in the Eleven (11) Local Government Areas of Gombe State was carried out. Ten (10) communities each were sampled in Akko, Balanga, Yamaltu, Deba, Kaltungo, Nafada, Bajoka, Billiri, Kwami and Gombe Local Government Areas in 2017 and 2018 cropping seasons. The objective was to establish pest incidence and level of damage caused by insect pests in farmers’ fields. Questionnaires and discussions with practicing farmers, state agricultural extension workers from 107 sample sites, 100 cowpea pods were selected at random and analyzed for percentage pod damage by pod borers and pod sucking bugs. The cropping systems in which cowpea was grown were noted and percentage seed losses due to pests from each cropping system were analyzed and recorded. From the results, major insect pests encountered during the field visits were: foliage beetles, ants, termites, flower pests [thrips (Megalurothrips usitatus) and blister beetle (Mylabris pustulata)], pod borers (Helicoverpa armigera, Maruca testulalis, Etiella zinckenella), pod sucking bugs (Anoplocnemis curvipes, Riptortus dentipes, Clavigralla tomentosicollis, Nezara viridula), aphids (Aphis craccivora), and leaf damaging weevils (Myllocerus undecimpustulatus). Results also revealed that mean damage by pod sucking bugs was highest in Balanga (74.74%), Kwami (90.4%) and Yamultu/Deba (91.04%) and least in Balanga (48%) than the damage by pod borers in all the communities surveyed. Among the cropping systems observed in the areas, cowpea/maize intercrop recorded greater damage by pod borers than pod sucking bugs while cowpea/millet intercrop had the least damage by pod borers and pod sucking bugs followed by sole cropping.
The outbreak of a notorious insect pest Anoplocnemis curvipes was observed on citrus orchard in Rivers State University Teaching and Research farm. This piercing and sucking insect ravage fruits, young/succulent stems, delay normal seed formation and cause premature droppings and drying of fruits was observed for the first time in Rivers State University Citrus Orchard. Lambda-cyhalothrin insecticide was applied on the infested trees using a mist blower at a standard dosage to manage the insect pest. A total of 15,795 nymph/adult A. curvipes was counted at the base of five severely infested citrus trees after insecticide application. Due to the severity of the pest attack 100% yield loss was recorded. Therefore, this survey is reporting its damage as a pest alert and also to create awareness of the presence of this notorious polyphagous pest A. curvipes as a potential insect pest in our agro-ecological environment.
In strict theory, causation (called ‘cause in fact’) and remoteness (called ‘cause in law’) must be dealt with as two separate requirements in each case. Causation is a matter of fact and requires the claimant to prove that the negligent act caused the damage complained of. The rules concerning remoteness of damage are a matter of law and broadly require the claimant to establish that the damage was of a kind which was reasonably foreseeable. It is concerned with setting a limit on the extent of the harm for which the defendant should be held liable. However, it is not always a clear cut issue to establish where causation ends and remoteness begins, nor is it always a simple matter to separate some aspects of remoteness from issues which arise in relation to duty of care. Both causation and remoteness of damage frequently turn on issues of policy. Both are relevant throughout the law of tort and are dealt with in connection with negligence for the sake of completeness.
Defamation and Other Torts Affecting the Reputation According United Kingdom Legislation and Jurisprudence (Published)
Everyone living in a society has a reputation and self-respect in the society and wants to exercise this without any interference from others. The tort of defamation is to protect individuals right of reputation in the society from being exploited and provides individuals with the actions which can be brought in the courts of law if they have been defamed by the publishment of an statement that is untrue about them and has an effect on the reputation of the individual in front of the society. There are some torts which have been developed to compensate for damaged reputations, just as others have emerged which compensate for bodily injury. In addition to compensation, equally important is the need for injunctions to prevent threatened damage to the reputation. The relevant torts are libel, slander, injurious falsehood, malicious prosecution. In this paper I will analyze the diverse types of torts in relation with UK legislation and jurisprudence in comparison with ECHR jurisprudence, in the light of recent developments of case-law.
The Legal Implications of Duty of Care (Published)
It is not for every careless act that a man may be held responsible in law, nor even for every careless act that causes damage. He will only be liable in negligence if he is under a legal duty to take care. It may be objected that “duty” is not confined to the law of negligence and that it is an element in every tort, because there is a legal duty not to commit assault or battery, not to commit nuisance and so forth. But all that “duty” signifies in these other torts is that you must not commit them. It throws no light on their essential ingredients. Thus it will not tell us what the plaintiff must prove in assault in order to be successful. Breach of it is not one of the internal factors which constitute these other torts. But in the tort of negligence breach of “duty” is the chief ingredient of the tort; in fact there is no other except damage to the plaintiff.