Tag Archives: Curriculum

Assessment of Teachers Implementation of Social Studies Curriculum Contents in Private Secondary Schools in Aguata Education Zone: A Catalyst for Achieving National Integration in Nigeria (Published)

The research work deals on the assessment of teachers’ implementation of social studies curriculum contents in private secondary schools in Aguata education zone: A catalyst for achieving national integration in Nigeria. A survey design was adopted for the study.  The population consists of fifty teachers teaching social studies in junior secondary schools in Aguata education zone.  Purposive sampling technique was used to sample forty teachers.  The questionnaire was the major instrument for data collection and it was validated by two experts in curriculum and social studies.  The mean statistics was used to analyse the data collected.  The findings of the study showed that the concepts or topics such as cross cultural studies, inter-tribal marriages, national institutions, national symbols promote national integration.  It was also discovered that teachers of social studies face difficulties in relating some of the topics in physical environment, peace education, national values to national integration.  The paper also discovered that field trip, discussion and inquiry methods are appropriate for teaching social studies for achievement of national integration but rarely used by teachers, and instructional resources for implementing social studies curriculum content are not adequately provided.  The paper concluded that adequate instructional materials, training and retraining of teachers, employment of qualified social studies teachers are necessary conditions for effective implementation of social studies curriculum content for achieving national integration in Nigeria.  Conclusion and relevant recommendations were made. 

Keywords: Curriculum, Integration, National, Social Studies

Investigating the Effects of Bangladesh and Global Studies (BGS) Assessment of Secondary School Certificate (SSC) Examination on Students Learning (Published)

The study determines to find out the present situation of Bangladesh and Global Studies test items/creative questions in Bangladesh. This descriptive study was conducted using a concurrent triangulation research design. To conduct this study both quantitative and qualitative data were collected. 16 test of Bangladesh and Global Studies test items/creative question papers of 2015 or 2016 were selected purposively as a sample from all educational boards. Bangladesh and Global Studies curriculum were analyzed to find out the major skills reflected through the curriculum. 48 students were selected conveniently for an interview from those who had been passed the SSC examination of 2015 or 2016. For collecting data from these sources, test analysis protocol, the curriculum content reading protocol and interview protocol were used as research tools. Test analysis protocol consisted of two criteria; wording criteria and practising criteria. Selected test items were analyzed based on these two criteria and Bloom’s cognitive domain. The study revealed that there was an imbalance in wording criteria and practising criteria of test items. SSC examination test items didn’t reflect the major skills of the curriculum appropriately. Most of the test items promoted students lower level learning and ignored higher level learning.

Keywords: Assessment, Bangladesh and Global Studies, Curriculum, Examination, SSC, Secondary Education

Competency-Based Curriculum: A Framework for Bridging the Gap in Teaching, Assessment and the World of Work (Published)

In this era of creative and flexible learning, most vocational education and training (VET) in developing countries still adopt a passive approach to learning where students’ success in examination is based on their ability to reproduce a credible portion of their notes from memory. Although the curricula and teaching methods have remained largely unchanged in developing countries over the years, employers are increasingly demanding technical competencies, analytical thinking, communication and entrepreneurial skills. Essentially, the study seeks to find out how curriculum development processes of CBT provides framework for aligning teaching and learning processes to equip trainees with requisite skills and competencies to perform in the world of work. The study examines relevant literature and policy papers from several databases together with key stakeholder consultations to obtain insights into CBT curriculum development processes, underlying assumptions, philosophies, linkages with Bloom taxonomy of educational objectives, assessment practices and outcomes and their eventual effects on the achievement of relevant skills and competencies required to perform professional tasks. The study shows that although mastery of a job-specific task is important, it does not ensure a competent employee particularly in the context of rapid pace of technological change and high labour mobility. Moreover, when outcomes of learning are tied to descriptions of work, or specific workplace activity, it emphasises tradition and limits transfer of skills and labour mobility, leaving graduates largely for routine and restricted tasks which may not guarantee employability (Nuffield Review, 2008). Prospective employees need to acquire a broader range of soft skills, professional competencies and attitudes to continually adapt and transfer skills and knowledge in different contexts.  It is imperative for industry to engage in innovative forms of collaboration to achieve industry–demand driven form of training and smooth transition of students from school to work. Feedback from assessment must focus on task-oriented information and corrective advice to build students’ self-esteem to self-regulate their learning towards the achievement of learning goals.

Keywords: Assessment, Competency-Based, Curriculum, Skills, Workplace

The Pronunciation Component in the Competence-Based EFL Curriculum in Cameroon Secondary Education (Published)

The shift from the objective-based approach to the competence-based approach in English at the secondary level in Cameroon places too much emphasis on real life situations and the vocabulary thereof, in its current field implementation. Apart from vocabulary, the other structural components are very shallowly dealt with, not only grammar, but, much more the teaching of pronunciation and speech sounds. Using the contents analysis theory, the paper brings up the shallow presence of English sounds, paramount element in pronunciation and ipso facto in oral communication in the curriculum. The paper justifies the need to stress the sounds of English in actual EFL pedagogy. It argues that the sounds of English must be significantly present in the classroom implementation of the curriculum and prescribes recordings, audio visual materials specially designed for the purpose of supporting and concretising the constitutional official bilingualism policy that is most current in the nation presently on the one hand, and worldwide intelligibility on the other hand.

Keywords: Curriculum, EFL, Pedagogy, Pronunciation, Sounds of English

Curriculum Development and Student Training: A Shared Responsibility between Clothing and Textile Institutions and Their Industry (Published)

The focus of the study was to look into the phenomenon of collaboration between clothing and textiles institutions and the industry regarding curriculum development and student training from the perspectives of respondents. Again the study was to find out if efforts to establish collaboration between clothing and textile institutions and the industry are based on theories/models or standardized practices. Purposive sampling technique was used for the study. Data for the study was collected using interview with semi-structured interview guide and observation. The sample size for this qualitative study was twenty-two (22) made up of two categories of respondent. It was made up of respondents from both the academia and industry. The outcome of the study showed these: It was realized that, as far as student training is concerned, respondents considered industrial attachment as the main and beneficial means of collaboration between the clothing and textiles institutions and the industry. Current efforts to establish collaboration between the two bodies around student training are not guided by standard practices or models. Implications of the outcome of the study as well recommendations for action are provided

Keywords: Collaboration, Curriculum, Institutions, Model, Textiles

Competency-Based Curriculum: A Framework for Bridging the Gap in Teaching, Assessment and the World of Work (Published)

In this era of creative and flexible learning, most vocational education and training (VET) in developing countries still adopt a passive approach to learning where students’ success in examination is based on their ability to reproduce a credible portion of their notes from memory. Although the curricula and teaching methods have remained largely unchanged in developing countries over the years, employers are increasingly demanding technical competencies, analytical thinking, communication and entrepreneurial skills. Essentially, the study seeks to find out how curriculum development processes of CBT provides framework for aligning teaching and learning processes to equip trainees with requisite skills and competencies to perform in the world of work. The study examines relevant literature and policy papers from several databases together with key stakeholder consultations to obtain insights into CBT curriculum development processes, underlying assumptions, philosophies, linkages with Bloom taxonomy of educational objectives, assessment practices and outcomes and their eventual effects on the achievement of relevant skills and competencies required to perform professional tasks. The study shows that although mastery of a job-specific task is important, it does not ensure a competent employee particularly in the context of rapid pace of technological change and high labour mobility. Moreover, when outcomes of learning are tied to descriptions of work, or specific workplace activity, it emphasises tradition and limits transfer of skills and labour mobility, leaving graduates largely for routine and restricted tasks which may not guarantee employability (Nuffield Review, 2008). Prospective employees need to acquire a broader range of soft skills, professional competencies and attitudes to continually adapt and transfer skills and knowledge in different contexts.  It is imperative for industry to engage in innovative forms of collaboration to achieve industry–demand driven form of training and smooth transition of students from school to work. Feedback from assessment must focus on task-oriented information and corrective advice to build students’ self-esteem to self-regulate their learning towards the achievement of learning goals.

Keywords: Assessment, Competency-Based, Curriculum, Skills, Workplace

Deficit Factors In the Implementation of Educational Policies and Reforms in Bayelsa State, Nigeria (Published)

This paper focuses on deficit factors in the implementation of educational policies and curriculum reforms in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. It is reasoned that the education sector in Bayelsa State has undergone certain reforms guided by public policies at all levels in recent years. However, much as these policies are actions by public officials, there is a significant absence of corresponding results in productivity and performance index. This perhaps may be as a result of the deficits occasioned by exclusion of the policy holders (teachers and students) who are critical to the implementation and reform process that are expected to drive positive educational outcomes. This paper takes an analytical view on the merits of the educational policies and reforms from 2012 till date viz-a-viz teachers’( personnel), exclusion factors, wastages and corruption that have attended these policies and reforms among others. The conclusion is that, these educational policies and reforms in the state do not have a buy-in of the critical stake- holders with resultant effects of aparthy, absence of commitment, indifference attitude and stagnation in performance. The paper recommends among others that, there must be deliberate engagement of the critical stakeholders on the types of educational policies and reforms that would ultimately benefit the state without any form of exclusion elements in its planning and implementation.

Keywords: Curriculum, Deficit Factors, Educational, Implementation, Reforms, policies

Identifying the Problems of Indonesian Primary School Teachers in Developing Learning Devices (Published)

This study aims to picture the ability of Indonesian elementary school teachers in developing learning devices as well as the problems they encountered and their needs. The research subjects are learning devices (curriculum, syllabus, lesson plan, teaching materials, learning media, evaluation instrument, and student work books). The data were taken from schools and teachers, document of learning devices, the organizers and managers of education units. The data was collected through interview technique, documentation, and observation; while the technique of data analysis is done descriptively-qualitative. The results showed that (1) the ability of Indonesian elementary school teachers in preparing instructional devices still need to be maximized. Although the quantity of its existence has been in accordance with the provisions of the national education standards agency, however, the quality can only reached an average of 9.78%; (2) the problems faced by elementary school teachers in preparing learning devices, namely: (a) unclear technical guidelines for the preparation of the curriculum and syllabus; (b) lesson plan is developed  limited to administrative needs; (c) learning materials did not analyzed optimally; (d) instructional media did not designed properly; (e) the determination of evaluation tool and follow-up of learning was still very limited; (3) in designing learning devices, teachers need to understand some aspects, such as (a) the design of lesson plans, (b) the development of learning models and methods, (c) the development of media and teaching aids, (d) the development of learning implementation scenarios, and (e) the development of learning evaluation devices.

Keywords: Curriculum, Elementary School, Learning Device, Syllabus, Teachers’ Competence

Comparative Assessment of the Implementation of the Early Childhood Education Curriculum in Public and Private Schools in Rural Areas of Ogun State Nigeria (Published)

Early years are remarkable period of growth and development in the lives of children. Early Childhood Education (ECE) is therefore an important educational activity geared towards giving early positive experiences to children. In achieving this, Curriculum of Early Childhood Education becomes a key factor. It is however worrisome that the implementation of this curriculum in Nigerian pre-primary school is too low despite its importance. This study was therefore conducted to compare ECE curriculum implementation in private and public schools in the rural areas of Ogun State, Nigeria. Multi stage sampling technique was used to select 240 educational instructors as the sample size for this study. Data were collected with the aid of questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square, and t-test.  Result of the study showed that majority (66.6%) of the respondents was between 21 – 40 years and the mean age was 36.6 years. Most (91.2%) of the respondents were female, married (78.8%), and had National Certificate in Education (48.8%) and Bachelor of Education (16.7%). The mean year of teaching experience was 12.4years. Most schools in the study area has teacher-pupil ratio of 1:35. Old curriculum was available (94.2%) and always used (78.8%) for teaching. Also, English Language (79.6%) constituted major means of communication and teaching of the children. Results of chi-square showed that significant association existed between ECE availability and ECE curriculum implementation in public and private schools (χ2 = 13.86, df = 3, p = 0.03) at p < 0.05 level. t-test analysis revealed that significant difference existed in the ECE curriculum implementation in private and public primary schools (t = 15.2, p = 0.00). The study established that implementation of ECE curriculum was generally low as most schools especially public primary schools lack basic school facilities and instructional materials and had no current edition of ECE curriculum. The study recommends that instructional materials should be adequately provided by the government, school management, individual proprietors and other stakeholders in the education sector, and Ministry of Education should ensure that new curriculum is in circulation and encourage its utilization for teaching in the study area.

Keywords: Curriculum, Early Childhood Education, Implementation, Private Schools, public

Assessment of Teacher Competence in Pedagogical Knowledge in the Implementation of Secondary School Curriculum in North Rift Region, Kenya (Published)

The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers’ competence in pedagogical knowledge in teaching in secondary schools in the north rift region of Kenya. The study used descriptive survey design and a mixed methods research. Simple random sampling and stratified sampling was used to select the sample.  Data instruments were structured and unstructured questionnaires, observation schedule and semi-structured interviews. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings of the study revealed that a majority of teachers did not use learner centred methods for example demonstration, enquiry and discussion. It was concluded that a significant number of teachers were not competent in pedagogical knowledge for the implementation of the secondary school curriculum. The study recommended revision of teacher education curriculum and the recruitment of more teachers to relieve on workload to enable them prepare effectively for the implementation of the secondary school curriculum

Keywords: Curriculum, Education, Kenya, Pedagogy, Teacher Competence

Evaluation of the Impact of Science, Technology and Modernisation in Social Studies Curriculum on University Students (Published)

This study was designed to evaluate the impact of Social Studies course – “Science, Technology and Modernisation”, how it can be best delivered and learnt by university students. The novelty research was devised to ascertain how effective out-of-door activities and classroom interactive teaching and learning will have on students learning performance. The course is meant to develop in learners an attitude of re-examining society from the point of view of developments in science, technology and modernity. Four hundred students were involved in the study. Students were asked to answer pre-instructional, instructional and post instructional course questions. Unstructured interviews were also used for clarification of issues raised by students. The pre-instructional course questions were: (1) what do you know about “Science”, “Technology” and “Modernisation”?; and (2) what are the ideal teaching and learning techniques you will wished to be adopted in the classroom? The instructional course questions were: (1) what are your prospects for the course of study; and (1) what are the challenges you encountered during teaching and learning?. The post instructional course questions were: (1) what are the strengths of the teacher and the learners?; and (2) what  are the achievements from the course of study?. These processes were employed to elicit responses from the students. Interpretative analytical approach was adopted to analyse the data collected. It was concluded that there was a strong consensus among students that the ideal participatory teaching and learning method, techniques and strategies they suggested to be used were later precluded by them. It was also revealed that majority of students were not in tune with the purely interactive and participatory lesson delivery approach. Based on the findings, the study recommended that favourable classroom atmosphere must be created, coupled with enforced cooperative teaching and learning techniques to enhance participation of students. Also, in order to ensure effective retention of concepts taught, students must be exposed to concrete and technological materials to practicalised the teaching of Social Studies. Educational / field trip should be incorporated in the teaching of Social Studies, especially when teaching the concepts “Science and Technology”. This will help students probe into issues concerning science and technology by using their observational, manipulative and investigative skills.

Keywords: Curriculum, Evaluation, Modernisation, Science, Social Studies, Students, Technology, University

The Teaching of ‘Modular Arithmetic’ in Senior Secondary Mathematics Curriculum for Contribution to Sustainable Millennium Development Goals (Published)

This paper observes that Modular Arithmetic is listed in the Senior Secondary Education Curriculum for Mathematics (2007) without content description that would guide teachers as it is the case with other topics in the curriculum. It could not be ascertained whether the omission of this valuable topic to daily activities of man in society was deliberate or otherwise. This paper sorts the opinion of in-service mathematics teachers as to what the content of ‘Modular Arithmetic’ should be.  Data were gathered using a researcher made instrument titled Content of Modular Arithmetic Questionnaire (COMAQ). Eight probable sub topics of modular arithmetic were listed on the instrument. The sample size was 30. The analysis of COMAQ was carried out using simple frequency count and percentage. Results showed that four out of the eight listed sub topics on the questionnaire were unanimously accepted as a good description of modular arithmetic. The paper consequently recommended that the four sub topics be included in the SSECM to complement achievement of Sustainable Millennium Development Goals (SMDGs).

Keywords: Curriculum, Millennium Development Goals, Modular Arithmetic, Senior Secondary Mathematics

Integrating Traditional and Critical Approaches to Syllabus Design: A theoretical study (Published)

Chronologically speaking, the view to syllabus design has been changed over the decades of development of the phenomenon of second language learning and teaching, as we go through from language centered methods to learner centered methods and to learning centered methods.  An attempt was made in this paper to revisit the concept and the types of syllabus approaches in the realm of second language learning and teaching.  Topics analyzed included, the definition of syllabus, the categorization of syllabi types, the introduction of an integrative approach to syllabus design and the presentation of the proposed model to syllabus design. In this paper, I focus on the traditional and critical approaches to syllabus design and introduce an integrative approach and finally I present the proposed model to teachers and syllabus designers to apply in practical contexts.

Keywords: Approach, Curriculum, syllabus design

Towards A Critical Thinking-Based Curricular and Pedagogical Innovations for Sustaining Democracy in Nigeria (Published)

Democracy, in addition to being a political system is also a way of life that is so admired that it has become a global model. Unfortunately those ingredients and flavour that make democracy the global ideal are terribly lacking in Nigeria, in addition to democracy not having any stronghold in Nigeria. Using the philosophical method, the paper raises sign posts on how critical thinking based curricular and pedagogical innovations can be a relief in reinventing and sustaining democracy in Nigeria. The position of the paper is that there is no substitute to positive thinking and positive thinking especially at the evaluative, insightful and critical thinking levels, can proffer solutions for resolving the pessimism that surrounds democracy in Nigeria. The paper makes recommendations, part of which include developing learners’ curiosity for participation in the democratic processes, the development of learners autonomous moral thinking as well as identifying live problems that threaten democracy and making such the subjects of arguments, dialogues and deliberations

Keywords: Critical thinking, Curriculum, Democracy, Nigeria, Pedagogy

Corruption in the Education Industry in Nigeria: Implications for National Development (Published)

This paper sees corruption generally as a condemnable behaviour and particularly identifies corruption in the education industry as a practice that has multiple capabilities for undermining the national development of Nigeria. Corruption in the education industry terribly creates infrastructural deficits that result in poor instructional delivery and making many people not to have access to education which in addition to being a fundamental human right is a spring board for their empowerment and emancipation infrastructural deficits and inability of a people to have access to education systematically renders useless the ability of the people to engineer  national development as generations of citizens are left frustrated, disgruntled and disenchanted in addition to manifesting terrible immorality in the forms of militancy and insurgency. Embrace of militancy and insurgency as a result of lack of access and infrastructure owe their sources to corruption, which disastrously has multiplier effects on the economy and the national development of the Nigerian state: potential human beings who ideally are great assets for the development of Nigeria are lost to actions/activities that are not investor and investment friendly. The paper recommends among other things the teaching of skills that can promote greater transparency and accountability in managing issues in education, stronger and implementable in managing issues in education, stronger and implementable social justice measures for the citizens to developing curricular and pedagogical measures for sensitizing citizens to rise up to kill corruption in Nigeria.

Keywords: Accountability, Corruption, Curriculum, Education, Innovation, National Development, Nigeria, Pedagogy, Transparency

The impact of experiential learning cycle on language learning strategies (Published)

This paper seeks to examine the effectiveness of the experiential learning theory by David Kolb in enhancing language learning strategies in an EFL context. Kolb’s four-stage model enables the learner to learn by experiencing, reflecting, conceptualizing and experimenting. The experimental group were selected through purposive sampling technique and comprised of 60, Undergraduate students registered for a Business programme. A series of tasks were designed to facilitate the development of skills at each stage of the cycle. A pre and post strategy evaluation was done using the SILL (Strategy Inventory for Language Learning) devised by Rebecca Oxford (1990).In addition to the SILL, data were collected through semi-structured interviews and students reflections through reflective learning journals. Findings revealed that there was an extremely significant difference between the pre and post SILL survey results after the period of intervention. It resulted in a rise in strategy use from medium to high. Implications for further research into innovative pedagogical approach that would develop high strategy users are discussed.

Keywords: Curriculum, Experiential learning cycle, language learning strategies, teaching methodology reflection

Examination of ICT Compliance and Utilization for Curriculum Delivery among Social Studies Teachers In Nigeria (Published)

Information and communication technology (ICT) has brought profound changes to almost all aspects of life, including educational practices. The role of ICT in the development of knowledge is widely recognized. This study investigated how teachers’ Compliance and Utilization of ICT impact on their curriculum delivery in Nigeria. Four research questions were raised and answered in this study. The study adopted survey design. The population of this study is 681 social studies teachers in 2015/2016 academic year, from where a total of 204 respondents were sampled. A 16-item instrument titled “ICT Compliance and Utilization Assessment Questionnaire” (ICUAQ) developed by the researcher and validated by experts in the Faculty of Education, University of Uyo was used for data collection with a reliability coefficient of 0.81, established through a correlation analysis. Data generated based on the research questions were analyzed with descriptive statistics using percentage. Findings revealed that social studies teachers show noncompliance attitudes towards ICT, measured in terms of acceptance of ICT training, and accessing ICT resources. The study revealed that teachers make less use of ICT in terms of frequency in the use of ICT in lesson preparations, teaching and learning. Based on the findings, the study concluded that objective of ICT in education in Nigeria has not been met, and that social studies teachers are yet to derive the benefits of ICT in curriculum delivery. Consequently, the study recommended that government and other stakeholders such as Parents Teachers Association (PTA) and Old Students should liaise with schools to determine the training needs of staff members and help them to organize appropriate training programmes.

Keywords: Curriculum, Education, ICT, Nigeria, Social Studies, Teacher, Training

A Model for Planning and Implementing Curriculum Change in Private Higher Education in Botswana (Published)

This paper examined the role of academic middle managers (AMMs) in the planning and implementation of curriculum change in private higher education institutions (PHEIs) in Botswana. Drawing from various sources of literature and theoretical underpinnings, the study described how AMMs enact their role in curriculum change. A quantitative approach that used a structured questionnaire for data collection was used in the study. Results of the study showed that AMMs face numerous challenges during curriculum change which have a negative impact on their role. These challenges include lack of authority, lack of detailed job descriptions, work overloads among others. Results further showed that the following variables namely curriculum leadership, AMM job requirements, AMMs role enablers, work experience, educational levels of AMMs are important predictors of effective AMMs role in the planning and implementation of curriculum change in PHEIs and hence need to be optimized. It was also shown that gender, age, department size do not have a significant effect on the effectiveness of AMMs in their role in curriculum change while level of education and years of experience have a significant effect. Based on the results, a model for enhancing the effectiveness of AMM role in the planning and implementation of curriculum change was proposed.

Keywords: Academic Middle Manager, Curriculum, Demographic Characteristics, Implementing, Model, Planning, Role, curriculum change

Curriculum and Indigenous Education for Technological Advancement (Published)

The curricula at various levels must be tuned to lubricate the wheels and make the hub of the Nigerian education system free and flexible enough to accelerate the attainment of the new aspirations of Nigeria towards the realization of Vision 202020 which include technological advancement. Curriculum is the sum total of human endeavours geared towards the realization of the aspiration of the society through the institution of the school. ‘Curriculum is also described as ‘what happens to students for which the school is responsible’, because curriculum happens within the school system, it is therefore imperative to include indigenous knowledge into the school curricula to ensure that local/indigenous technologies are improved upon as to bring about modernization of society. In nowadays knowledge-based society, the local embedded knowledge and innovation are considered as the core-competence of the curriculum of the region. In rural areas, maybe it is not suitable to adopt the high-tech or other industrial cluster development strategy as in urban areas because of the barrier of ‘organizational thinness’. However, the rural areas always have their special local resources, especially the intangible asset, such as cultural resources and local knowledge embedded in the long history. Besides absorbing the external knowledge, exploiting the local knowledge will also enrich the knowledge network of the local areas. Moreover, because indigenous knowledge was generated from the local wisdom and culture, it fits to the local situation natively, and also it is very hard for others to imitate.

Keywords: Curriculum, Educational gap., Nigeria, indigenous education, local skills, local technology

Diagnosis of Reading and Writing Skills in Primary School Students (Published)

Language is the vehicle for effective communication. Every student needs to develop the skills in listening, speaking, reading, and writing then only they will be able to communicate properly in the society. Reading is one of the ways people all over the world can enhance their knowledge hub and get exposed to the experiences of other people. Writing is a productive and active process of the mind by which the writer creates meaning. This paper is an outcome of diagnosis of reading and writing skills of primary school students. The study adopted survey technique for data collection. The participants of the study were 460 fifth grade students selected through simple random sampling technique from Wayanad. Out of 460 students, 178 were from Government and 182 were from Aided and 100 were from Private schools. The results revealed that there exists significant difference between government, aided and private Primary school students in their reading and writing skills. There is no significant difference in their reading and writing skills based on gender.

Keywords: Curriculum, Primary School Students, Reading and Writing Skills, Second Language