A Model for Planning and Implementing Curriculum Change in Private Higher Education in Botswana (Published)
This paper examined the role of academic middle managers (AMMs) in the planning and implementation of curriculum change in private higher education institutions (PHEIs) in Botswana. Drawing from various sources of literature and theoretical underpinnings, the study described how AMMs enact their role in curriculum change. A quantitative approach that used a structured questionnaire for data collection was used in the study. Results of the study showed that AMMs face numerous challenges during curriculum change which have a negative impact on their role. These challenges include lack of authority, lack of detailed job descriptions, work overloads among others. Results further showed that the following variables namely curriculum leadership, AMM job requirements, AMMs role enablers, work experience, educational levels of AMMs are important predictors of effective AMMs role in the planning and implementation of curriculum change in PHEIs and hence need to be optimized. It was also shown that gender, age, department size do not have a significant effect on the effectiveness of AMMs in their role in curriculum change while level of education and years of experience have a significant effect. Based on the results, a model for enhancing the effectiveness of AMM role in the planning and implementation of curriculum change was proposed.
ENABLERS OF AND BARRIERS TO SUCCESSFUL CURRICULUM IN HIGHER EDUCATION: A LITERATURE REVIEW (Published)
Literature shows that many curriculum reforms in higher education institutions fail because curriculum change sponsors fail to identify and plan effectively and proactively to deal with barriers to curriculum change as well as to harness enablers. One such critical reason why curriculum change sponsors such as academic middle managers fail to adequately plan to effectively deal with challenges to curriculum change as well as to maximize on the opportunities provided by enablers to successful curriculum change has been shown in literature as lack of knowledge. The above claim is further supported in other researches which show that for the majority of curriculum users, their understanding of curriculum and curriculum change is still at neophyte stage. This study therefore, supported by literature, wishes to lay claim to the fact that there are as many enablers as there are challenges to successful curriculum change in higher education which academic middle managers (AMMs) can take note of when planning as well as implementing curriculum change. In laying the foundation for this claim, this study examines the various enablers and challenges to successful curriculum change in higher education