Tag Archives: Culture

The Implication of Reviving Tourism on Daniski Hill (Published)

Most of the publication available about Daniski Hill mainly narrate the history of those who once lived on the hill, measuring and describing structural remains of settlements which indicate significant features and factors of the region’s history: multi-ethnicity, migration, ascent to supremacy and early industrial activities. This research is more concerned with assessing the likely physical, economic and socio-cultural implication of reviving tourism on the historic Hill. The authors have carried out an ethnographic research, and conducted an interview with some of those who visited the Hill three years ago, as well as the residents of the nearby village, some metres away from the foothill of the study area. This was done so as to collect data, assess and reveal the physical, economic and socio-cultural implication of reviving tourism there. The respondents were asked to provide any other reason that prompted them to visit the study area apart from the ones listed, which are: tourism (appreciation of ancestral homeland, appreciation of geographical features, demystifying legend/myth, sightseeing); collection of medicinal herbs; ethnic purposes (revival of past glory, participation in ceremonial activities); gathering of fuelwood; grazing; hideout; hunting of animals; political purposes; research (observation of archaeological remains, observation of architectural monuments); spiritual purposes; and treasure hunting. The respondents also answered multiple questions associated with physical, economic and socio-cultural implication, in which the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to describe their responses. The research was limited to the Plateau and the surrounding area of Daniski Hill. This paper could serve as a reminder to those managing the Hill of what they should be mindful of so as to conserve the area sustainably, without causing a physical, economic and socio-cultural damages to the site.

Citation: Yusuf Maina-Bukar, Yau Saidu, Usman Mohammed Taa (2021)   The Implication of Reviving Tourism on Daniski Hill, International Journal of Physical and Human Geography, Vol.9, No.1, pp.36-51

Keywords: Conservation, Culture, Tourism, daniski

Digitisation versus authenticity: towards digital representation of museum artefacts (Published)

Educating and engaging museum audience in contemporary times have become imperative considering the increasing persistent information society which has brought about the need for museums to utilize new methods of disseminating information. Digitisation therefore has become the new instrument for access and preservation in museums but can be perceived as a threat to authenticity.  Loss of authenticity of artefacts through reproduction could result in the loss of connection between the audience and the artefacts otherwise known as aura. The object value with respect to authenticity and aura will be discussed in this paper in relation to digitisation. A theoretical approach will be used in exploring how authenticity can be used as a tool to validate digitisation of artefacts used in the representation of culture.

Keywords: Authenticity, Culture, artefacts, aura, digitisation, reproduction

Symbolism and Race in Amiri Baraka’s Dutchman (Published)

Theatre is one of the means by which different cultures both proclaim and question themselves.It is constantly connected with the broad forces of insurrection and rituals in different societies. Starting from the beginning of the previous century theatre has developed as a practice with which to rethink gender, violence, ethnicity, identity and arts. Racial thinking and modern stage interact to reset an understanding of race and turn individual experiences into art. Amiri Baraka’s Dutchman (1964) is the study of a culture of white supremacy that has historically marginalized all other races, presenting some possible consequences. In an attempt to combat the deep rooted problem of racial discrimination in the American society, Baraka tries to examine and analyze the psyche behind it.

Keywords: Culture, Discrimination, Violence, race

Cultural Factors Influencing Psychological Contract (PC) Experiences among Survivor Managers (Published)

Most researches on psychological contract are conducted in the banking sector while limited local enquiries focused on the experiences of the survivor-managers in developing economy particularly in Nigeria. This study therefore, examines the cultural factors influencing PC experiences and responses among survivor-managers in Nigeria. The study adopted a qualitative approach and more specifically interviews. Data were analysed using empirically driven thematic analysis. The findings revealed that; unemployment, values of dependency, corruption, family obligations, beliefs, spirituality among others shape attitudes and responses of the survivor-managers’ with respect to downsizing exercise. Therefore, human resource managers who are part of the downsizing exercise should embrace open and transparent process as well as being sensitive to the wellbeing of the victims and survivors to reduce the negative psychological contract experiences and responses among Survivor-managers. In addition, the research created awareness on the need to diversify research in terms of methods adopted.

Keywords: Culture, Developing Economy, Nigeria, Survivor-managers, psychological contract

A Socio-Cultural Commentary on the Introduction of Male Circumcision in the Traditionally Non-Circumcising Luo Community of Western Kenya (Published)

Of Kenya’s total of 44 ethnic groups, only a handful are traditionally non-circumcising, while all the rest practise circumcision. The traditionally non-circumcising lot consists of three tribes and two sub-tribes. They are: the Luo, the Turkana and the Teso, and two sub-tribes of the Luhya tribe namely Luhya tribe namely the Banyala of Port Victoria and the Samia. Of these, the Luo community is the largest and one of the country’s most culturally distinct communities- its distinct culture being non-circumcision. This dichotomy has a superiority contest and rivalry between these two diametrically opposite cultures. The circumcising communities consider themselves superior to the non-circumcising ones for reason of the pain they endure during circumcision, hence despise the latter as cowards who have feared undergoing the pain of circumcision. This has made circumcision  such a sensitive and emotive issue that arouses variant passions and controversy between these two categories. Yet, for the non-circumcising communities such as the Luo, non-circumcision is their traditional customary practice and cultural norm, rather than an omission. Incidentally however, male circumcision was introduced in the Luo community slightly over a decade ago; which seems to endanger this culture of non-circumcision, as well as the cultural future of this community. Notably, while to some segment of the Luo community circumcision has come as a relief to the ridicule and despisement that the community has for long endured from the country’s traditionally circumcising communities, to another large segment of the community, this new practice is an affront on the community’s cultural identity, cultural integrity, ethnic identity, and even traditional customary law. This commentary discusses the socio-cultural implications the introduction of circumcision in this community, hence is timely and of anthropological significance. It mainly presents the author’s views; but also draws from the documented research and diverse documented views of other commentators on the subject, as well as the responses from informal interviews and focus group discussions the author had with respondents. The respondents were selected from target groups that included: ordinary citizens; community leaders; officials of governmental and non-governmental entities; policy-makers as well as experts and scholars in the areas of public policy, sociology, cultural anthropology, history and law. The data and information obtained from those interviews and discussions was analyzed by qualitative analysis since it was essentially of a qualitative character. From those contacts, the author established that the Luo community and other traditionally non-circumcising communities currently embracing circumcision are doings so not for any tangible benefit(s) or ratio, but largely as a modern practice that is fashion and a sort of craze. This is in contrast to their culture of non-circumcision, which they now consider outmoded and out of fashion. The benefits popularly touted for introducing circumcision, for instance hygiene and other medical benefits; alleged sexual performance boosting and other erotic considerations; and physiological benefits such as improving the visual appearance of the male sexual organ, are in reality only secondary rather than primary considerations. While in the country’s traditionally circumcising ethnic communities circumcision is either a religious cultural rite or rite of passage that marks the passage of an adolescent into adulthood, in the Luo community as in its other traditionally non-circumcising mates, circumcision as a newly introduced practice is a mere artificial medical and/or cosmetic procedure that is a mere branding of the genitalia, with no tangible benefits or significance. Such that the real beneficiaries of Luo circumcision are other actors, as the community loses, in terms of the abandonment of a crucial aspect of their traditional culture, namely non-circumcision.

Keywords: Culture, Tradition, circumcision, commentary, luo, non-circumcising communities, removal of teeth, rite of passage

Language Endangerment, Shifting Cultural Identities and Revitalization Efforts (Published)

This article attempts to offer a broad perspective on the link between language, culture, and identity across a multiplex of social groups. The relationship between language endangerment, death, and the potential impact on cultural identity is examined. Through the analysis of four pertinent research studies, the microcosmic connection between language and cultural identity is explored in several contexts and across several cultural fields. In particular, the positive and negative effects of a person’s perceived dominant language is examined at length. The researchers conclude that language indeed impacts cultural identity, and vast collaborative efforts regarding language endangerment awareness, maintenance, and restoration need to be undertaken

Keywords: Culture, Identity, collaborative efforts, language endangerment, language maintenance, language restoration

The Paraphernalia and Symbolism of Uvie Drum as an Idiophone of Traditional Religious Communication among the Igbo of Eastern Nigeria: The Aguleri Experience (Published)

The ritual decoration of the Uvie sacred drum is highly impregnated with its ritual symbologies that are imbued with mystical powers and these nurtures the cosmological Aguleri people’s belief system. In Aguleri culture and tradition, white chalk (nzu), alligator pepper, fowl feathers, blood and kola-nuts are parts of valuable ritual paraphernalia which acts as a power house for the ritual decoration of the sacred drum of the Uvie drum which imbues it with the mystical powers in order for it to speak ritualistically. This paper examines and equally predicates these ritual items from the Aguleri cosmological paradigm in order to bring out its symbologies and ritual implications through an ethnographic method to demonstrate that ritual is part and parcel of decoration of the Uvie sacred drum for it to speak ritualistically in traditional religion of the Igbo people as a study in musicology.

 

Keywords: Cosmology, Culture, Sacred, Symbolism, decoration, imbues, rituals

Adaptations and Linguistic Manipulation of English Words in Alaroye Newspaper (Published)

Language is an important vehicle of thought and culture and people’s cultural identity is embedded in their language. Nigeria is a multilingual nation and English which has become a global language serves various functions in the country. It enjoys dominance in different levels and it is employed in the media as a source of disseminating information to the people. The data for this research were derived from one edition of Alaroye newspaper and analysed using Labov’s variability concept which stresses how language systems affect one another within a speech community. A total number of 66 words were identified from the newspaper for analysis. The Alaroye is a weekly indigenous newspaper written in Yoruba language and it has been chosen for this study because of its use of the deviant form and style of writing. The study revealed that many English words have been incorporated into the Yoruba language and such expressions dominate the Alaroye newspaper as journalists modify English words to fit into Yoruba expressions. This paper investigates the usage of these words in preference to their natural equivalents in the Yoruba language to reveal the great influence of the English language; its dominance over the Yoruba language and the attendant effects on the Yoruba language and concludes that English influence on the Yoruba language has greatly affected its orthography as the incursion of these English words will likely, in the nearest future change the normal or natural way in which the Yoruba language is written and used.

Keywords: Alaroye newspaper, Culture, English, Yoruba, language change

The effectiveness of culture on EFL learners during COVID-19 (Published)

This article aims to investigate the relationships between culture and Language. The motivation for this article is driven from the need to understand how culture plays an effective role in learning EFL through suitable specific instructional strategies. One of the educators ‘ attempts is to take the advantage of the technology to invest the culture to get effective learning of the English Language through E-tools. And this serves and support education in the age of COVID-19.Language is the backbone of communication. It is more than vocabularies and grammar, it comprises cultural, social, and communicative settings that were considered the fruitful environment to learn the language. Teaching cultural content via E-tools is a unique method of teaching the English Language in the crisis to bridge the educational gaps in the students’ learning in the E- space of learning. There are cultural issues that are deserved to be learned and adopting them in the educational system for widening the pupils ‘minds toward learning English as a second language. Those issues could be implemented by suitable teaching strategies to let students learn professionally as well as to overcome the cultural challenges in light of COVID-19.

Keywords: COVID-19, Culture, Language, Second Language

Binomials in English and Kenyang (Published)

In linguistics, a binomial pair or binomial is a word pair or sequence of two words or phrases belonging to the same grammatical category, having some semantic relations and joined by some syntactic device. Different languages and cultures have deferent ways of presenting binomials and this can be a problem to those studying English as a second language. There are two main ways in which this linguistic device is formed: Linguistically and non-linguistically.  Both Kenyang and English have binomials and the speakers of Kenyang learning or teaching English as a second language encounter some difficulties using and understanding them. We therefore thought it necessary to describe this linguistic phenomenon by looking at the factors involved in their ordering. These factors differ and range from the syntactic to semantic and to phonological principles. Data for this work was collected from published articles and books and cross checked by specialist of the language. The construction grammar theory was used as the bases for our analysis. The findings revealed that the Kenyang language makes use of binomials and that semantics, syntax, pragmatics, phonology and even paralinguistic factors are involve in the placement of these pairs. The findings equally revealed that, gender bias is one of the criteria use in determining which name comes first in a binomial pair .We concluded our findings on part two of this work that male names are use first and are more stable before female names.

Keywords: Culture, English, Kenyang, binomials, word pair

Influence of Learning English on Identity Switch among Senior Secondary School Students in Owerri Zone, Imo State, Nigeria (Published)

This study investigated the influence of learning English on identity switch among senior secondary school students in Owerri zone, Imo State Nigeria. Data for the study were collected by means of a structured and pre-tested questionnaire based on Likert 5-point ratings. The data were analyzed by using Mann-Whitney method of estimating mean scores. Results showed that students are more elated using English in their communications than Igbo, their first language (L1). Findings showed that the influence of English on the cultural identity of the respondents is such that many feel uncomfortable in the midst of their compatriots who do not speak English. Finally, the study demonstrated that Students learning English in Owerri zone switch their identities to suit the target language. The study recommended that productive bilingualism can serve as an educational objective, where teachers may simultaneously cultivate learners’ intrinsic interest, and positive attitudes and beliefs associated with the target language and culture on one hand, and the native language (Igbo) and culture on the other hand.

Keywords: Culture, Ethnicity, Identity, Learning, Second Language

The Philosophical and Sociological Implications behind the Adinkra Symbol ‘Nyàmé Ǹwú Nà Màwù’ (Published)

It has become very necessary that we highlight on some adinkra symbols but particularly the Nyàmé ǹwú nà màwù’ symbol. In recent times, the use of adinkra symbols has become sparingly in use all in the name of modernization and the downgrading of old customs and traditions. Because of these emerging trends in our Ghanaian society, it has become crucial and relevant for us to reignite the insightful meanings of these symbols into our Ghanaian societies and what they stand for in our day to day activities as humans. The adinkra symbols have rich cultural relevance in pre-modern times, modern times and post-modern times. The symbol Nyàmé ǹwú nà màwù, simply means “God never dies, therefore I shall not die”. This gives hope and assurance to people even as it inspires them of their human existence. Literature from scholars who have written extensively on the subject were reviewed. Philosophical and sociological implications were drawn from these literatures in bid of applying them to human existence and living. It has been realized that this symbol serves as a way of communicating. It is therefore encouraged by the study that these adinkra symbols particularly Nyàmé ǹwú nà màwù, should be used often in our local and traditional settings in order to inspire our society and the generations to come to have that hope and confidence in their existence that so far as God exists and not dead, they also exist. By doing this, as a country our youth and people would be motivated to work hard to promote national development because these symbols and their meanings redefine their human existence and inspire them to aspire.

Keywords: : Nyàmé ǹwú nà màwù, Culture, Philosophical, adinkra, sociological

The Effect of Infertility on Marital Instability in Organizational Societies (Published)

This research works focuses on infertility as a factor that led to marriage break up, which stem from primordial sentiments to technological advancement. For a marriage to be stable, reproduction by giving birth to offspring play crucial role. The fertility factor is important consideration in marriage stability. It then follows that fertility is important as any other relationship in marriage stability. Generally, the evaluation of the effect of infertility on marital instability have centred on divorce in case of the woman or polygamous (marry another wife) in case of the man,fagbohungbe, (2001). This fact reflects a lack of proper understanding of infertility and marital instability. The effects of infertility on marital instability manifest in many capacities. Among these: lack of affection and love, lack of trust, extra marital affairs, depression and emotional problems. It is therefore necessary to empirically study how these factors contribute to the challenges of infertility and marital instability, consequently, the study also examine the influence of religion, educational level and socio- economic status  of the couple on infertility and its effect on marital instability.

Keywords: Culture, Infertility, Marriage, Technology, ninstability

The Impact of Religion, Culture and World View of the People of Cross River State on the Slow Growth of Seventh-Day (SDA) Church Mission in the State (Published)

The research looks at the impact of religion, culture and worldview of the people of Cross River State on the spread of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in Cross River State. To realize this, three (3) point purpose of the study was considered, data were collected from the field-work and the study employed statistical, sociological, historical and theological methods in analyzing its data. From the investigation conducted on this study, it is apparent that the following are the major factors impacted on the slow growth of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in Cross River State, namely: Religio-Cultural Factors and Church Growth; Socio-Economic Factor and Church Growth, and Religious Factors and Church Growth. This recommended church organization can be understood through the adoption of the under-listed missiological approaches: Incarnation, Inculturation, and Contextualization of the gospel, in addition to Inclusive Community Paradigm in reaching out to the people of Cross River State.

Keywords: Culture, Religion., church growth., worldview

Influence of Learning English on Identity Switch among Senior Secondary School Students in owerri Zone, Imo State, Nigeria (Published)

This study investigated the influence of learning English on identity switch among senior secondary school students in Owerri zone, Imo State Nigeria. Data for the study were collected by means of a structured and pre-tested questionnaire based on Likert 5-point ratings. The data were analyzed by using Mann-Whitney method of estimating mean scores. Results showed that students are more elated using English in their communications than Igbo, their first language (L1). Findings showed that the influence of English on the cultural identity of the respondents is such that many feel uncomfortable in the midst of their compatriots who do not speak English. Finally, the study demonstrated that Students learning English in Owerri zone switch their identities to suit the target language. The study recommended that productive bilingualism can serve as an educational objective, where teachers may simultaneously cultivate learners’ intrinsic interest, and positive attitudes and beliefs associated with the target language and culture on one hand, and the native language (Igbo) and culture on the other hand.

Keywords: Culture, Ethnicity, Identity, Learning, Second Language

Female Genital Mutilation: A Rite Of Passage or a Breach of Women’s Rights in Nigeria (Published)

Female genital mutilation or female circumcision constitutes one of the vital challenges confronting the rights of women in Nigeria. Attempts geared towards its complete eradication have remained unsuccessful to date due to the fact that the practice is entrenched in the culture or traditional beliefs of the people. The article sought to address the question whether female genital mutilation was merely a rite of passage or it amounted to a grave violation of women’s rights in Nigeria. A number of justifications have been advanced for the continued practice of female genital mutilation in Nigeria. Nonetheless, the study revealed that the practice, though considered as an initiation rite into womanhood in some communities, posed serious immediate and long term health consequences to the victims as well as violated various human rights’ principles guaranteed under international, regional and national instruments. Thus, the article recommended, inter alia, that the Nigerian government and all relevant global and local stakeholders should adopt suitable mechanism towards the abolition of the practice in Nigeria. 

Keywords: Culture, Female Circumcision, Female Genital Mutilation, discriminatory practices, female genital cutting, rite of passage, women’s rights

Language and Culture as Synergy for National Integration in Nigeria (Published)

Trends in historical evolution indicate that the nation-state of Nigeria came into existence since 1914. Her territorial boundaries were fixed with prejudicial colonial interests without considering the interests and aspirations of the traditional ethnic groups involved. Since then, the nation has been governed and exploited by the feudal-bourgeosie, privileged to inherit the nation from the colonial masters. Worst still, the various machineries at different periods and republics charged with the responsibility of ruling the nation has proved anti-social, adopting in their distribution of values, formulas detrimental to the general welfare of the citizenry. Thus, we are left with a fragile nation, drifting apart and her people resorting to communal and individual self-definition. The persistent call for national conference among the various ethnic groups to resolve the national question gives credence to the deduction that the nation was founded upon vested colonial interest, without consulting the component ethnic groups. The issue of national integration has become a re-assessment of the pre-requisite for Federalism towards the continued existence of the sovereign nation state in Nigeria. Thus, the focus of this paper is how to adopt a paradigm shift from the previous abortive methods that have been employed so far, to the pragmatic resolve of using language and culture in attaining the long elusive national integration in Nigeria.

Keywords: Culture, Diversity, Integration, Language, Nigeria

The Press and Vietnam’s Soft Power Relation in Global Integration: Ho Chi Minh’s Cultural Perspectives Revisited (Published)

This paper adopts the culture definition of Ho Chi Minh, a great leader of Viet Nam people, in exploring the connection between types of powers in the political arena. In case of Viet Nam, the revolutionary leaders’ directions can become a wonderful source for professional practice of the media, which is considered the fourth estate of a nation. Therefore, there are some qualitative clues that trigger us to explore the press in its traditional formats and in a more modern context of social media, proving its close relation in promoting the cultural identities of the country, which is also a component of soft power.

Keywords: Culture, Ho Chi Minh, Viet Nam, fourth power, soft power, the press

Gender in English as a Foreign Language Classroom: A Case Study (Published)

The impact of Gender in EFL classroom has always been an issue of discussion. With the difference of social and cultural background, the role of gender differs from nation to nation. In Bangladesh, gender role is defined based on social, cultural, and traditional beliefs.  This study is an attempt to find out whether genders of learners as well as genders of teachers create barriers in EFL learning in Bangladesh. In the study a number of 198 students responded to the questionnaires prepared for a survey to find out the impact of gender of students and teachers in EFL classroom. Adding to this, 20 students and 9 teachers from a university further illustrated this issue by participating in semi-structured open ended interviews. The findings of this mixed method study reveal that the socio-culturally defined gender role of male and female in the society impacts inside English as a foreign language class in Bangladesh. Self-efficacy of teachers and learners may help address the issue. In this regard, emphasis may be put on teacher self-efficacy to raise awareness among the teachers and learner self-efficacy to help learners to consciously avoid gender discrimination in classroom at the tertiary level.

Keywords: Culture, EFL learning, Gender, Self-Efficacy, Teacher, learner

The Inclusion of Culture in Tesol Lessons: Three Case Studies On Teacher Cognitions And Context (Published)

This study explores the use of culture in TESOL lessons by investigating the cognitions of three teachers working in very different contexts: the United States, Central/Eastern Europe, and Saudi Arabia. Through a series of semi-structured interviews, the practices of the participants were examined to better understand the types of lessons in which they choose to include topics related to their own or their students’ cultures, their motivations for doing so, and any contextual factors which may influence their decisions. The results indicate that the teachers regularly include cultural topics in a variety of lesson types, but most often in speaking or reading activities. The participants are largely motivated to include such topics in order to engage their students, yet context can prove a limiting factor. Implications extend to teachers and teacher trainers, particularly in light of the teachers’ approaches to the intersection of cultures in their classrooms as a means to develop students’ language skills and their abilities to interact with the diverse population of English speakers.

Keywords: Context, Culture, Interculturality, TESOL, teacher cognition