It is sometimes or even commonly believed that popular novels are not as significant as elite novels and they are written and read solely for the purpose of entertainment. The main goal of this article is to show that popular novels have the same value and because they have a much wider audience, they have a stronger influence on people than elite novels. The article achieves this goal by proving that these novels are concerned with social protest. Julia Alvarez’s How the Garcia Girls Lost Their Accents (1991), Chuck Palahniuk’s Fight Club (1996), Joe Klein’s Primary Colors: A Novel of Politics (1996), Toni Morrison’s Paradise (1997), and Stephen Chbosky’s The Perks of Being a Wallflower (1999) are five of the most well-known American popular novels in 1990s which addressed the social problems of the decade. The present article intends to examine social protest in these novels using the principles of cultural studies and according to some key figures in this field. The article offers a full investigation into these social issues in the novels: hardships of African-Americans, racism, patriarchy, hardships of adolescent life, hardships of living in a capitalist society, lost generation, consumerism, political corruption, immigration, assimilation and loss of identity. After examining all these issues, it is concluded that all these popular novels are concerned with social protest and thus they can be considered as significant as elite novels and maybe more significant due to their controversial quality and their wider range of readers.
This paper has emerged out of the conviction that linguistic theory has more to offer to translation theory than is so far recognized and vice versa. As Gutknecht (2001) claims, the translation theorists have made little systematic use of the techniques and insights of contemporary linguistics. However, two points must be emphasized: (1) although translation has existed for many centuries, it was not until the second half of this century that ‘Translation Studies’ developed into a discipline in its own right, and (2) although translation has taken on concepts and methods of other disciplines, “it is still conceived as a subdiscipline of applied linguistics” (Schaffner, 2004, p. 2). On the other hand, the past fifteen years or so have seen the focus of translation studies shift away from linguistics and increasingly to forms of cultural studies. There has also been a shift towards studies that have incorporated models from functional linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis, locating the text within its sociocultural context. More recently, technological advances, which have transformed the working conditions of professional translators and researchers and have spawned new forms of translation, have also produced new areas of research, some linked to the effects of globalization and some to forms of intersemiotic translation. The present study, therefore, attempts to outline the scope of the discipline of translation studies (TS), to give some indication of the kind of work that has been done so far. More importantly, it is an attempt to demonstrate that (TS) is a vastly complex field with many far-reaching ramifications