This paper examines the role of women in protecting and preserving the cultural heritage of the African continent which is an important ingredient for the nation’s development. It traces the indispensable role of the women to the creation of mankind at the Garden of Eden. However, despite the much desired role and contribution of the women to the development of the African nation, the imposition of colonialism in Africa laid the groundwork for the marginalization of the women folk, which eventually created gender inequality that weakened the contribution of the women. Nevertheless, African women have not given up the struggle. Women continue to play a leading role in preserving the farming tradition which is the main occupation in Africa by means of women organizations such as “Women in Agriculture in Nigeria” and “Women farmers Advancement Network”. Notwithstanding there are still a number of barriers against women effective participation in economic development activities which the study has identified to include; systemic gender biases in form of customs and beliefs; domestic workloads that impose severe time burden on women; limited access to credit, education and medical care. The expose of these barriers reveals the need for greater sensitization of the cultural and social barriers to encourage increased women participation in the economic activities in Africa.