Farmer-Herder conflicts have grown in frequency across Nigeria. They have spread and intensified over the past decade and currently are a threat to national survival: Fulani-farmer conflict linked to poverty, migration, inequality, and religious groups. The impacted states are those of the Nigerian Middle Belt like Benue, Taraba, and Plateau (UsmanLeme, 2017). This paper assessed the Fulani-farmer conflict between Fulani herdsmen and farmers in Nigeria, and gave explanations for the causes of the Fulani-farmer conflict by using the Wehr’s Conflict Model, and provided alternative resolutions for sustainable development. Tens of thousands of Nigerians also have been displaced. Women and girls were particularly affected: they experienced poverty and lack of access to resources, and their husbands were killed in the violence in the Fulani-farmer conflict (International Crises Group, 2017). Violent conflicts between herdsmen and farmers from Nigeria have escalated in recent years, which threatened people’s lives and the country’s stability. The conflicts between herdsmen and farmers have resulted in a humanitarian crisis (Leme, 2017). The objective of this study is to discuss the causes, as well as the economic, political, and cultural implications of these attacks for peacebuilding and to establish conflict resolution strategies between Fulani herdsmen and farmers.
The Impact of Cultural Identity and Attitudes towards Foreign Language Learning On Pronunciation Learning Of Iranian EFL Students (Published)
The present study was an attempt to measure the impact of cultural identity and attitudes towards foreign language learning on pronunciation learning of Iranian EFL students. To do so, 60 Iranian EFL students studying at a high school in Sabzevar were selected. They were school boys and girls aging between 16 and 18 years of old. The Language Learning Attitude Questionnaire and the Cultural Identity Questionnaire were used in order to measure the participants’ attitudes and cultural identity towards pronunciation learning. The results indicated that the participants hold positive attitude towards pronunciation learning. Also, cultural identity has a meaningful association with learning pronunciation among the Iranian EFL students.
The Dualistic Mode of the Divided Heroism in Heart of Darkness and Season of Migration to the North (Published)
This paper analyses the Dualistic Mode of the Divided Heroism in Heart Darkness and Season of Migration to the North. Heart of Darkness is a novel by the Polish-British novelist Joseph Conrad, about a voyage up the Congo River into the Congo Free State, in the heart of Africa, by the story’s narrator Marlow. Marlow tells his story to friends aboard a boat anchored on the River Thames, London, England. And in Season of Migration to the North the unnamed narrator has returned to his native village in the Sudan after seven years in England furthering his education. On his arrival home, the Narrator encounters a new villager named Mustafa Sa’eed who exhibits none of the adulation for his achievements that most others do, and he displays an antagonistically aloof nature. Mustafa betrays his past one drunken evening by wistfully reciting poetry in fluent English, leaving the narrator resolute to discover the stranger’s identity. The story of Mustafa’s troubled past in Europe, and in particular his love affairs with British women, form the center of the novel. The narrator then discovers that the stranger, Mustafa Sa’eed, awakens in him great curiosity, despair and anger, as Mustafa emerges as his doppelganger. The novel has also been related in many senses to Heart of Darkness by the author Joseph Conrad. Both novels explore cultural hybridity, cross-colonial experiences, and orientalism. The paper tries to clarify the divided heroism in Heart of Darkness through Kurtz and Marlowe, while in Season of Migration to the North through the anonymous narrator and Mustafa Saeed.