Ethnographic Study of Wooden Objects Conservation: Focus On National Museums in Lagos and Oron, Nigeria (Published)
Conservation of cultural wooden objects in the national museum in basically to preserve the social, cultural and religious attributes embedded in the collection. The traditional wood-carvers produced various objects for utilitarian purposes in the community. These objects have in the past played one functional role or the other to the society that produced them before they got into the museum for preservation. Collection of wooden objects in the national museums started with a view to protect cultural objects from theft, vandals and weathering agents as well as present them as testimony of ancient civilisation. This study, examined indigenous types of wood commonly used by wood-carvers or sculptor, and methods of preserving them for a long period of time. Data were collected from wood-carvers, sculptors, museum workers, and relevant literature was consulted. Result shows that Nigerian wood carvers understand strong and durable wood types that are good enough to carve different objects. The wood types, strength, and indigenous methods of preservation of wooden objects have contributed greatly to their survival under scientific methods of conservation in the national museums in Nigeria.
The strategies and functions of the United Nations organization and Internal Law in order to support Cultural heritage (Published)
This study was an attempt to examine the support of ownership, transfer and restitution of Cultural heritage according to the international and internal laws in Iran. Cultural heritage is a compound word. Heritage is defined that something is inherited and culture is knowledge and wisdom. Cultural heritage indicates all remain of national monuments from the past and also indicates the human’s life in the history. Cultural heritage can be categorized into two groups; the first one is mundane cultural heritage for instance ancient monuments and spiritual cultural heritage includes customs, music and song. Many conventions were approved in the international law level that the membered country must observe the approved rules of the cultural heritage. This study aimed to provide practical solutions to support cultural properties. The study was a qualitative research and collected data from books, papers and internet sources. The findings of the study revealed that different rules and conventions were approved according to international and internal laws, but they are not sufficient in order to protect cultural properties. Import and export of cultural heritage are considered as a crime and the criminals will be prosecuted by judicature. Moreover, intensive conventions and laws should be approved and all governments are convinced to meet international and internal laws in order to protect cultural legacy and prevent demolition of it.
The main purpose of this paper is to outline the maintenance of cultural heritage through language revival. It discusses the need for language revitalisation in terms of its significance, strategies, methods and issues. It found that ethical reasons, aesthetic motivations, economic justifications, cognitive benefits are adequate to embark on any language revival program. It also found that both language and culture need to be revived. It was also found that there are three effective approaches to language revival (i.e. total-immersion method, bilingual method and language reclamation method). It was also found that language revitalisation programs experience a number of problems, represented in complexity of the language, existence of other languages to revive, government support and language programs. This paper concluded that language revival is a matter of ethics, pride, knowledge, beauty, economics and cognition. Thus, the general public and all authorities should be aware of individuals involved in the language loss situations, and the steps needed to transform their life.
THE IMAGE OF THE AFRO-AMERICAN IN FENCES (1985) (Published)
August Wilson’s major concern is to sympathetically put on stage the black experience and thus to arouse the community’s awareness for such experience. His black characters are always in constant quest for self-realization and for an authentic identity. Consequently, focuses on encouraging the blacks to rediscover their identities and to maintain self-authentication. He believes that the only way for the African Americans to transcend the limited existence in white racist America is by recovering their Africanness; by recognizing and accepting their African roots. He is keen on reminding the African Americans of their cultural heritage and their identity that has been maintained for ages despite their painful sense of alienation and their separation from their African culture. To Wilson, the African culture and heritage should not be an element of inferiority; rather it must be an evidence of pride because Afro-Americans have their own cultural distinctions: they have their own customs, music, food, clothing, language, rituals of marriage and funerals which are different from the whites’. Thus, he gives a complete record of the black world and culture, and urges, moreover, blacks to be proud of their distinct cultural heritage.
This paper examines the history of easel painting on libation art in post-independence Ghana in relation to Nkrumah’s non-statutory cultural policy of inculcating libation art in national state functions. Through a visual analytic approach of post-colonial paintings on the subject matter by two pioneering contemporary Ghanaian artists, and analysis of musical libation into hiplife, it concludes that libation is a beneficial intangible cultural heritage permitted by Ghana’s constitution and international laws and must be reinstated at state functions. It posits that though libation shares peculiar religious characteristic verticality with Christian and Islamic prayers, the nation owes no apology to any religious sect for pouring libation at state functions as it has been the case for over five decades after independence. It recommends that a libation manual must be made to encourage its practice by young ones in order to ensure its preservation for the current and future generations
Nigerian multi-ethnic and diverse culture, gives a lot of value to its arts, which primarily include ivory carving, grass weaving, wood carving, leather and calabash, pottery, painting, cloth weaving, glass and metal works. Perhaps more than any form of art, the art of cloth (Adire) making reflects the culture from which they come. The art’s value (Adire making) has certainly been developed over a long period of time, only time make it stronger as it passes from generation to generation. Adire textiles which, is the indigo dyed cloth is an integral part of the culture and cultural heritage of the people of Egba kingdom in south western Nigeria.It is the major local craft by the women who use a variety of resist dye techniques in their entrepreneurial and artistic efforts, to produce various design of adire textile for both the local and national market.Using survey and questionnaire, this paper therefore traces the evolution of traditional Adire production and its uses among the people of Egbaland in Ogun state and Nigeria as a whole, and as a spring that supplies different vocations like designers, pattern makers,dryers, tie and dye experts, cloth and brocade sellers, merchandisers, distributors, oloolu (local ironers) and other related menial jobs. Thus, this study attempts to examine the impact of Adire textile as a cultural heritage on entrepreneurial development in Ogun state, Nigeria. Findings reveal that adire making has undergone innovation which has helped in creating incremental wealth and generate employment for the people. Based on these findings, policy recommendations were made to the government to support people in this sector through provision of credit facilities to enable them expand their capacity through the use of modern equipment. Moreso, the art of adire making should be introduced into the academic curriculum in colleges, to enable interested students have adequate knowledge right from school.