Tag Archives: crude oil

Quantitative Analysis of Heavy Metals in Produced Water from Ndx 011 in Niger-Delta Oil Field (Published)

Oil and gas production is usually accompanied by water (brine), which is referred to as produced water. As oil and gas production declines, the quantity of water production from same reservoir increases. These produced waters have many components, which mostly have adverse environmental impacts. One of such components are the heavy metals which are numerous. Produced water sample from Niger Delta crude oil was investigated for five (5) heavy metals. The analysis was carried out using an Ultraviolet Visible Spectrophotometer. The analysis was carried out (in line with industry standard) on the produced water sample in order to determine the concentrations of the heavy metals present. The results obtained from this analysis showed that the concentrations of one out of the five heavy metals investigated (Arsenic (As)) was more than the allowable limits set by regulatory bodies. Arsenic (As), Boron (B), Manganese (Mn), Tin (Sn), and Barium (Ba) have concentrations of 0.9599mg/L, 0.0955mg/L, 0.000433mg/L, 0.31730mg/L, and 0.0019mg/L respectively compared with maximum limits set by the regulatory bodies as 0.3mg/L Arsenic, 5mg/L Boron, 0.004mg/L Manganese, 10mg/L Tin and 1.3mg/L Barium.  This showed that the produced water from oil and gas activities in Niger Delta region of Nigeria should be tested and treated for Arsenic and other present heavy metals that may have concentrations higher than standard limits set by regulatory bodies before disposal and/or re-use.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Niger-Delta, Produced water, crude oil

Fatal Attraction: Social Isolation Intensifying Kidnapping in the Niger Delta Region (Published)

Kidnapping in the Niger Delta has become a social phenomenon which is now increasingly common in its operations. The lucrative and mesological nature of the crime has made it a copycat form of criminality, with a proliferation of an anticipatory socialization process. However, economic inequality depicts that Individuals are easily cajoled to copy the criminal act, because it is a cheap avenue to survive without having to commit murder. This paper sheds light on kidnapping by untangling the gripping issues with atrocious accounts in the Niger Delta region, as factors fostering the strife and ascendancy of kidnapping in the region. This paper used academic literature as a tool for historical revionism to expose the deprived state of the Niger Delta region, which underscores with the intention of kidnapping being eradicable in nature. However, some points were shared as recommendations for clamping down the skyrocketing operations of kidnapping in the Niger Delta region.    

Keywords: Militancy, Niger-Delta, crude oil, kidnapping

Abandoned Nigerian Economic Resources: The Case of Oil Palm (Published)

Palm oil which is a product of oil palm is a very important domestic and industrial product that has variety of uses. The Nigerian economy in the 1950s till middle 1960s prior to the discovery of crude oil in 1957 was the largest producer of oil palm in the world. The discovery of oil shifted the emphasis of the economy from agriculture to crude oil exploitation. There is an increasing agitation for the diversification of the economy and specifically, the rejuvenation of the oil palm sector. The revitalization of the oil palm sector has the capacity of fast tracking the economic development of the country owing to the various products of the palm and the multiple uses of the products. The research adopted a “desktop research” approach and made evaluation of existing situations. Documents on oil palm production in Nigeria, media and agencies reports on oil palm business in Nigeria were used as primary sources of information. The article concluded with discussions on the way forward to rejuvenate the oil palm sector in Nigeria.

Keywords: Economic Resources, Nigerian Economy, Oil Palm, Revitalization, crude oil

Crude Oil Production, Prices, Export And Foreign Exchange Rate, Do They Interact? Evidence from Nigeria (2006 – 2014) (Published)

The purpose of the study is to determine the extent to which Foreign Exchange Rate is influenced by or associated with crude oil selling price, crude oil export and crude oil production and the direction and magnitude of their granger causalities in Nigeria oil and gas sector (2006 -2014). Data were collected from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin and multiple regression, correlation and granger causality approach were adopted in the analysis of data. It was found that foreign exchange rate is positively influenced by volume of crude oil export and the selling price per barrel of crude oil, though not significantly; while a weak and insignificant relationship exists between crude oil export, crude oil production and foreign exchange rate. There is no Granger Causality running from any of the explanatory variables namely crude oil export, crude oil selling price and crude oil production, to foreign exchange rate. This implies that there are other factors that exert more far reaching impact on foreign exchange rate than crude oil production, export and sales price in Nigeria. Hence, the regulatory agencies in Nigeria such as the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) should strengthen other macroeconomic and microeconomic variables in other to foster a stable foreign exchange regime.

Keywords: Causality, Correlation, Foreign Exchange, OPEC, Regression, crude oil


The objective of the paper is to empirically examine the static and dynamic short-run and long-run interaction between the prices (and their volatility)  of natural gas, crude oil, propane and heating oil   in the  US economy, using the Toda and Yamamoto (1995) procedure of Granger’s Causality. Long-run equilibrium relationship is examined using Johansen’s maximum likelihood procedure. The price volatility spill over is also examined between the energy markets using ARCH model. The relationship between prices of energy products may have several implications for the pricing of their derivative products and risk management. This study also examines the efficiency of these markets using the Lo-Mackinlay and Chow-Denning’s (1993) multiple variance ratio tests.   The study uses daily timeseries data from 7th January 1997 to 4th April 2012. To avoid non-stationarity in the variables, all prices are converted into returns form. Based on this data, we found that the return on Henry Hub Natural gas is , well explained by the explanatory variables such as the return of WTI crude oil, Heating oil, propane and the  past values (two days lags) of its own  return. The study found that there is bidirectional causality between Henry Hub Natural Gas return and Heating Oil return. Unidirectional causality is found between three pairs of energy products and the causality runs from Propane return to Crude Oil return, Crude Oil return to Heating Oil return and Heating Oil return to Propane return. Surprisingly, we did not find any causal relationship between Henry Hub Natural Gas return and WTI crude oil return. .There exists a long run equilibrium relationship between the each pair of commodities except between Henry Hub Natural gas and WTI crude oil price. Bidirectional volatility spillover is found between Henry Hub natural gas return and heating oil return, Henry Hub natural gas return and Propane return, WTI crude oil return and Heating Oil return, WTI crude oil return and Propane return. The result from efficient market hypothesis reveals that the energy market in the U.S. does not seem to follow the weak form of efficiency during the study period

Keywords: EGARCH, GARCH, Heating oil, Natural Gas, Toda and Yamamoto causality, Vector Auto Regression, crude oil, volatility clustering, volatility spike