Determinants of Saving Behaviour of Rural Cocoa Farmers in Ikom Agricultural Zone, Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)
The main concern of this study was to ascertain the determinants of saving behaviour of rural cocoa farmers in Ikom Agricultural Zone of Cross River State. The specific objectives of the study were to; ascertain the methods of saving used by rural cocoa farmers in the area; examine the effectiveness of the saving methods used and, ascertain the variables that determine rural cocoa farmers’ saving behaviour. The study adopted a survey design, the population of the study comprised all registered cocoa farmers in the area. Two extension blocks (Etung and Ikom) were purposively selected for the study, and from the blocks, six communities were selected from each blocks, and three (300) hundred respondents were randomly sampled for the study. The result of analysis revealed that, rural farmers save money using their homes, boxes, holes, clay pots, cooperative and keeping in bams and with relatives etc. it was also observed that investing in project, buying of assets, bams and cooperative etc. were the most effective saving methods used by the farmers. The study found that the saving behaviour of rural cocoa farmers was determined by their age, education, marital status and income among others. The study therefore, recommended among other things, robust rural banking reforms to improve rural farmers savings.
Influence of Institutional Variables on Employability Skills Acquisition among Business Education Students in Tertiary Institutions In Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)
This study determined the influence of institutional variables on employability skills acquisition among Business Education students in tertiary institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria. Survey research design was employed in carrying out the study. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire which was validated by two Vocational Educators and an expert in Measurement and Evaluation. A reliability estimate of .80, .81 and .87 was achieved for the research variables using Cronbach Alpha Statistical Analysis, after a trial test was conducted using 20 final year Business Education students in University of Uyo who did not form part of the main study sample. The questionnaire was administered to 400 final year Business Education students using stratified and accidental sampling techniques. Data analysis was done, while two (2) hypotheses were formulated and tested for significance using Simple Linear Regression Statistical Technique. Analyzed data were presented in form of tables and the results revealed that there is significant influence of classroom climate and instructional method on employability skills acquisition among Business Education Students. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended among others that the teacher should always utilize practical method of instruction that can help the students concretize what they learn and apply it in real life situation as learnt.
Land Grabbing: Implications of 1978 Land Use Act on Rural Livelihood Sustainability in Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)
Land grabbing is an unprecedented phenomenon affecting rural areas and their livelihood. Land grabbing and or rush has been observed to an aged long practice by the feudal lords, big investors and the elites in several areas and communities. The present study examined the impacts posed by the 1978 Land Use Act (LUA) on livelihood sustainability options of the rural dwellers. Data were gathered through the administration of 100 structured questionnaire copies to rural dwellers mainly chief council, youths and women of Ekong Anaku, Mbarakom in Akamkpa L.G.A and Ibogo community in Biase L.G.A. Similarly, 40 oral interviews were conducted across the sampled communities. Results obtained revealed that land grabbing was in existence in Cross River State and had had substantial influence on the livelihood of rural dwellers. This observation on land grab was necessitated by the 1978 land-use act which gave the state government the absolute right to own and administer resources without recourse to free prior information consent (FPIC). The act was observed to bring about land loss and food security issues in the area. Based on the result, it was recommended that grabbed lands should be reallocated back to the communities or a fresh memorandum of understanding re-entered between the companies, government and the impacted communities.
Availability of HIV/AIDS Information to Women in Ikom Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)
The study was carried out to determine how HIV/AIDS information was made available to women in Ikom Local Government Area. Survey method was used through the administration of questionnaire. 300 copies of the questionnaire were distributed. The return was 90%. It was revealed that, due to poverty and the low level of education, the women found it very difficult to have access to available HIV/AIDS information whenever it was made available. It is therefore, recommended that adult schools should be established in all Local Government Areas of Cross River State especially Ikom Local Government Area to educate the women and sensitize them about the dangers of this deadly disease and how to prevent it especially from mother-child. By educating the women, it will enable them access available HIV/AIDS information at the appropriate time. Women should be empowered so that, they do not rely entirely on men financially.
Analysis of Internally Generated Revenue and Capital Expenditure Utilization in Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)
The study analyzed the relationship between internally generated revenue and capital expenditure utilization in Cross River State, Nigeria from 2007 to 2015. Secondary data sought from Cross River State budget office, internal revenue service and ministry of finance were used for the study. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the relationship between internally generated revenue and capital expenditure utilization in Cross River State. Findings from the study indicate that increase in government expenditure without corresponding revenue will widen the budget deficit. It is recommended from the findings that; the Cross River State government should increase the size of its internally generated revenue in order to accommodate the capital expenditure of the state. The state government should diversify its economy and explore especially the non oil minerals sector of the state economy so as to correct the disparity between revenue and expenditure and reduce the attendant budget deficit. Expenditure reforms analysis should be considered vis-à-vis taxes and all other revenues sources. This will help set targets for revenue mobilization and utilization as well as expenditure spreading over the entire state economy. The Cross River State government in order to be sustainable in its development strive must develop the internally generated revenue base, promote fiscal prudence in the management of its resources, enhance infrastructures, eschew corruption and unsustainable spending as well as sustain it capital votes. The Cross River State government should continue to increase its aggregate revenue mostly from internally generated revenue base, since only revenue from internal sources can boost the state income given the dwindling allocations from the federation account. The government should go a step further in intensifying efforts at developing other sources of revenue in order to insulate the economy from the volatility associated with the oil revenues
Awaiting Trial among Suspected Criminal Persons and Lack of Legal Representation in Cross River State- Nigeria (Published)
The work examined the relationship found to exist between awaiting trial among suspected infractors of the law and legal representation conundrum for indigent accused persons in Cross River State- Nigeria. In order to achieve this purpose, a null hypothesis was formulated to guide the research. To test the hypothesis, a questionnaire entitled “Awaiting Trial Among suspected persons (ATAP) and Lack of Legal Representation (LLR) scale. The questionnaire was administered on four hundred and ten (410) awaiting trial respondents in three (3) purposively selected prisons (OGOJA, AFOKANG AND IKOM PRISONS) in the state. The research design was survey. The split-half reliability method was adopted in determining the reliability estimate of the instrument. The hypothesis was tested at .05 level of significance while Pearson product moment correlation technique was the statistical tool used for analysis. Findings were that significant relationship exists between awaiting trial among suspected criminal prison and legal representation for the indigent accused persons in prison custody. Based on these findings, the researchers recommended that the indigent accused persons awaiting trial should be provided with lawyers to represent them.
Teacher Demographic Variables and Students’s Academic Achievement in Secondary Schools Home Economics in Calabar Educational Zone of Cross River State (Published)
This study investigated the influence of teacher demographic variables on secondary School students’ academic achievement in Home Economics in Calabar educational zone of Cross River State. Hypotheses were postulated to guide the study. Some relevant literatures were reviewed based on the two variables of the study. The study adopted a survey design. Simple random sampling technique was utilized to draw four hundred and twenty (420) respondents comprising of twenty (20) Home Economics teachers and four hundred (400) JSS III Students from the population. Two sets of instruments were used to elicit information from the sample. These instruments include: “Teacher demographic variables questionnaire” (T.D.V.Q) and “Home Economics Achievement Test” (HEAT). Kuder Richardson formular – 21 was used to establish the reliability coefficient of HEAT with an estimate of 0.77. T-Test was used in the data analysis. The results of data analysis showed that the two hypotheses were significant at 0.05 probability level. This means that educational qualifications and experience of the teacher influence significantly the students’ academic achievement in Home Economics in the study area. Based on these findings some recommendations were made.
STUDENTS’ INTEREST IN SOCIAL STUDIES AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA (Published)
This research examined students’ interest in social studies and academic achievement in tertiary institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria. To achieve the purpose of this study, one hypothesis was formulated to direct the study. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. A sample of seven hundred and fifty-three (753) students was randomly selected for the study. The instruments for data collection were the Students’ Interest in social Studies Questionnaire (SISSQ) and Social Studies Achievement Test (SOSAT) developed by the researchers were subjected to validation by experts in measurement and evaluation. The reliability estimate of the instruments was established through the split-half reliability method and it associate Spearman Brown prophecy formula. Pearson product moment correlation analysis was adopted to test the hypothesis at.05 level of significance. The result of the analysis revealed that students’ interest in social studies significantly relate to their academic achievement in the subject. Based on the finding of the study, it was recommended that teachers/facilitators should explain all subject matter in away that each student can comprehend in order to arouse their interest in the subject among others.
KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF PREGNANT WOMEN TOWARDS FOCUSED ANTE NATAL CARE SERVICES IN UNIVERSITY OF CALABAR TEACHING HOSPITAL, CALABAR, CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA (Published)
The study investigated pregnant women’s knowledge and attitude towards focused antenatal care in University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar. Three research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The literature was conceptually, empirically and theoretically reviewed based on the main variables under study. The study adopted a descriptive design and the sample size was 174 pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic in UCTH from January – May, 2014. The instrument for data collection was a three section questionnaire. The instrument had a correlation coefficient of 0.79. Questionnaire was administered through face to face interaction and on the spot collection of completed questionnaire. The data collected from questionnaires were analyzed using frequencies and percentages, while chi-square test analysis was used to test the hypotheses. Findings of the study revealed that majority of the respondents had good knowledge and favourable attitude towards focused antenatal care. In testing the hypothesis using chi-square analysis, hypothesis one showed a statistical association between knowledge and attitude towards focused antenatal care, when the chi-square calculated of 20.6 was greater than the critical chi-square of 5.991 at 0.05 level of significance with 2 degrees of freedom. Although knowledge towards focused antenatal care high and attitude was favourable, some weakness still exist which posed as hindrance to utilization. Based on the above, intensive awareness creation on focused antenatal care for pregnant women recommended. Retraining of health workers and monitoring and supervision of health workers to improve on the hindrance identified as barriers to utilization was also recommended.
COMMUNAL PARTICIPATION CORRELATES AND IMPLEMENTATION OF SOCIAL WELFARE PROJECTS IN ODUKPANI AND BIASE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS, CROSS RIVER STATE (Published)
The study was carried out to investigate the extent to which communal participation correlates influence the implementation of social welfare projects in Odukpani and Biase Local Government Areas of Cross River State. Two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Two hundred and fifty (250) respondents were randomly selected from ten (10) council wards in Odukpani and Biase Local Government Areas of Cross River State, using stratified and simple random sampling. Communal participation in the implementation of social welfare projects questionnaire (CPISWPQ) was used for data collection. The data was analyzed using population t-test analysis for single mean and one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The research findings revealed that the level of indigenes’ participation in the implementation of social welfare projects in Odukpani and Biase is significantly high. Perceived leadership style of leaders do not significantly influence communal participation in social welfare projects. It was recommended among other things that government should in partnership with rural communities initiate and implement social welfare projects to improve the living conditions of the people. Enlightenment campaigns on the need to comprehensively and sincerely implement social welfare projects be intensified in rural areas.
STRESS ARISING FROM MOTIVATION AND PROFESSIONAL EFFECTIVENESS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN CROSS RIVER STATE (Published)
This study was conducted to establish the influence of stress arising from motivation on professional effectiveness of secondary school teachers in Cross River State. The study adopted an ex-post facto design. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select sixty (60) schools out of two hundred and thirty (230) public secondary schools, while random sampling was used to select six hundred (600) teachers. Research data were collected through the use of 2 sets of self-developed and validated questionnaire titled: Motivation Inventory (MOI) and Professional Effectiveness Questionnaire (PEQ). MOI consisted of 21 items Likert-type scale with a alternative responses (very stressful, stressful, less stressful, not stressful). PEQ was a 28 items Likert-type scale with 4 alternative responses (very effective, effective, ineffective, less effective and has submits such as lesson presentation, use of instructional aids, classroom management, evaluation of students, learning motivation, supervision of co-curricular activities and professional/personal qualities. Both instruments has reliability index of 0.81 and 0.87 significance. Result obtained showed a significant influence of stress arising from (motivation on lesson presentation, use of instructional aids, classroom management and evaluation of students, supervision of co-curricular activities). Based on the finding, it was recommended among others that teachers should learn how to manage stressful situations by use of self-talk technique which enables an individual emit self-statements that may prompt coping behaviour.
STRESS ARISING FROM MOTIVATION AND PROFESSIONAL EFFECTIVENESS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN CROSS RIVER STATE (Published)
This study was conducted to establish the influence of stress arising from motivation on professional effectiveness of secondary school teachers in Cross River State. The study adopted an ex-post facto design. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select sixty (60) schools out of two hundred and thirty (230) public secondary schools, while random sampling was used to select six hundred (600) teachers. Research data were collected through the use of 2 sets of self-developed and validated questionnaire titled: Motivation Inventory (MOI) and Professional Effectiveness Questionnaire (PEQ). MOI consisted of 21 items Likert-type scale with a alternative responses (very stressful, stressful, less stressful, not stressful). PEQ was a 28 items Likert-type scale with 4 alternative responses (very effective, effective, ineffective, less effective and has submits such as lesson presentation, use of instructional aids, classroom management, evaluation of students, learning motivation, supervision of co-curricular activities and professional/personal qualities. Both instruments has reliability index of 0.81 and 0.87 significance. Result obtained showed a significant influence of stress arising from (motivation on lesson presentation, use of instructional aids, classroom management and evaluation of students, supervision of co-curricular activities). Based on the finding, it was recommended among others that teachers should learn how to manage stressful situations by use of self-talk technique which enables an individual emit self-statements that may prompt coping behaviour
Land-Rights, Women and Food-Crop Production in Cross River State: Implications for Rural Food Supply and Natural Resources Management (Published)
The aim of the paper is to examine land-rights, women, and food-crop production in Cross River State: implications for rural food supply and natural resources management. The specific objectives of the study is to identify the sources and sizes of farmlands by gender, identify the rights and land use pattern of women with differential access to land and determine the effects of women’s rights to land on rural food supply and natural resources management. Household questionnaires were the primary source of data for the study. A multi-stage stratified random sampling procedure was adopted in selecting samples for the study. Descriptive and inferential analytical tools were used for the data analysis. Descriptive procedure used was the proportionate distribution of counts. The influence of gender rights to land on food supply and natural resources management was analyzed by the Chi square (x2) statistical method. The results were tested at 0.5 and 0.1 level of significance. Findings indicate that there is a significant difference in food availability and natural resources strategies employed by men and women. Therefore, to ensure rural food availability and the maintenance of the natural resource base, rural women’s rights to resources (land) need to become a legal possibility and a political priority in Nigeria.