Tag Archives: Cronbach’s Alpha

The Role of E-Marketing in Supporting Tourist Destinations in Jordan “Case Study: Petra (Published)

The study aimed to reveal the role of e-marketing in supporting tourist destinations in Jordan “case study: the city of Petra.” The study population consisted of all domestic and foreign tourists who frequent the city of Petra. A tool was developed to measure the role of e-marketing in supporting tourist destinations in Jordan, and its validity and reliability were verified and distributed to a sample of (121) local and foreign tourists who visit the city of Petra. The study results showed that there is a significant role of e-marketing in supporting tourism destinations in Jordan. The results also showed no statistically significant differences in the role of e-marketing in the media promotion of tourism in the city of Petra due to the variables (gender, nationality). In light of these results, the study recommended focusing on activating tourism promotional campaigns through websites, especially government websites, which provide reliable information in their validity and are considered the only outlet for all problems of tourism promotion in the city of Petra. The main findings of this paper are summarized as the following; 1. The importance of governmental and commercial tourism organizations using numerous websites to promote Jordanian tourist destinations, the most significant of which being Petra. 2. Awareness of the relevance of e-marketing in boosting local tourism among individuals in charge of Jordan’s public and private tourism sectors. 3. The need to design a unique and appealing manner of exhibiting Petra’s product or archaeological site to attract more local and international tourists. 4. The importance of researching is comparable to that of other Jordanian archaeological cities, such as Jerash or Umm Qais

Keywords: Cronbach’s Alpha, E- Marketing, Petra, Statistical Analysis, tourist destinations

Statistical Analysis: Internal-Consistency Reliability and Construct Validity (Published)

In testing a proposed model of any academic field, huge extents of data are collected and analyzed through a proposed or adopted scale by researchers.  It is very significant to test the reliability and the construct validity of this scale.   This study aims to explore the important strategies or tools that should be followed to achieve a reliable and valid scale. It also aims to study the two concepts in association with scale testing as well as to afford a snapshot of the recent understandings of the reliability and validity of scale tests as expressed in previous research studies. This paper emphasis mainly on the theoretical and practical parts of reliability, and the affiliation between the two perceptions. Seeking to synthesize research results about the construct validity and internal-consistency reliability of items (factors), we focus on the four main measurements: Cronbach’s alpha, inter- item correlation, corrected item – total correlation, and Cronbach’s alpha if item deleted.  These measurements would provide researchers with a clear knowledge about purifying the survey’s scale before using it in collecting the data set. This kind of research is required so that a complete understanding of the construct validity and internal – consistency reliability of items is realized. 

Keywords: : Scale, Construct, Cronbach’s Alpha, Internal-Consistency, Reliability, validity


The study examined factors constraining the implementation of performance related pay in government agencies in Kenya. It investigated the influence of management commitment, employee participation and setting of performance targets on the factors influencing implementation of performance related pay in Kenya Revenue Authority. Findings from various studies have indicated that many organizations have embrace Performance Related Pay but the implementation process remains a challenge. Literature was reviewed in line with the study objectives and the research questions. The study employed the use of a case study as a research design. A self administered questionnaire was used as the primary data collection instrument. To achieve the main objective, a description survey of 232 respondents was conducted from a population frame of 2322 from employees Kenya Revenue Authority in Times Tower Nairobi headquarters. Statistical inferences indicated that high reliability was achieved by the data collection instrument with Cronbach’s Alpha coefficients ranging from 0.764 to 1.000. The findings of the study were that at least three of the elements under study contributed to the constraints faced in the implementation of the performance related pay. The study therefore, recommends that further study on performance related pay be done in relation to the strategic planning of KRA and other public organizations in Kenya, in order to enhance service delivery and employee performance.

Keywords: Cronbach’s Alpha, Employee Performance, Management Commitment, Performance Related Pay, and Performance Targets