Tag Archives: critical discourse analysis

Discursive Construction of the Ideological Self and Other in Akachi Adimora-Ezeigbo’s The Last of the Strong Ones (1996) (Published)

This paper investigates the linguistic resources deployed by Akachi Adimora-Ezeigbo in The Last of the Strong Ones to construct group solidarity and social identity. Conducting critical discourse analysis, the paper explores the discourses of resistance of a typically black agrarian Umuga community to the domination of Kosiri’s or the white settlers. The analysis reveal the use of the discursive strategies of membership categorization, referential nomination and agency in the construction of the in-group and out-group dichotomies of Us and Them. The black population in Umuga, which makes up the majority in the community, displays group solidarity based on their shared social representations and ideologies against the more powerful white settlers, who, by contrast, make up the minority. The narrator also indexes the domination and exclusion of Umuga people using agentless passive constructions. The significance of this study lies in showing that the reader’s understanding of how textual resources index participants’ social identity, their ideological attitudes and the power relations that underlie discursive interactions enhances text processing and interpretation.

Keywords: Ideology, Nigerian Literature, critical discourse analysis, discursive strategy, self-presentation

Ideology in Unequal Treaties: A Social Actor Representations Study (Published)

This paper is an analysis of the social actors in bilateral and multilateral unequal treaties investigating the system of ideas that expresses the interests of the powerful states engaged in the treaties in question. It tries to answer the following: how do the unequal treaties represent the social actors? Thus, the study aims at uncovering the ideological stance behind including or excluding treaties’ participants.  For this end, the study analyzes six treaties using Van Leeuwn’s (1996:66) model .It has been found that social actors are represented in various ways and for various rationales. They are included to be assigned a responsibility, and to legitimate the stipulations agreed upon. They are excluded when the most significant part of the message is introduced instead, as being more important than its doers or to generalize the intended acts. In all cases, the ideological perspective involves satisfying the states’ interests.

Keywords: American treaties, Ideology, Power, critical discourse analysis

Promoting Peace, Security and Development through Language Use in the Nigerian Media (Published)

This paper investigated the utilization of language by the Nigerian media to propagate peace, security and national development. Radio news has the ability to influence public opinion in diverse ways. The study adopted a critical discourse analysis of some selected messages which were relayed at the middle of the radio news texts of Osun State Broadcasting Corporation, Nigeria. Twenty mid-news messages were purposively selected for analysis based on the information conveyed in them in order to reveal the inherent and embedded messages in them. The data were grouped and analysed using four major headings – Government and politics; Education, health and religion; Socioeconomic and cultural issues; and National peace, crime and security. For our analysis, the theoretical frameworks adopted are Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) and Halliday’s Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG) which emphasizes the form/function relationship in language. The linguistic features embedded in the messages and the contributory ideological effects on the listeners were analysed. The study revealed that the mid-news messages were useful for public enlightenment, social mobilization and they also served as facilitators for development and growth by enhancing the public orientation towards national integration, economic empowerment, educational awareness, political discourse, sociocultural issues and poverty alleviation. The paper, therefore, brings to the fore the significance of radio mid-news messages in sensitizing members of the audience towards actions needed to be taken as the situation demands.

Keywords: Language, Media Discourse, Mid-News Messages, Radio News, critical discourse analysis

A Critical Discourse Analysis of Personal Deixis in Isis Selected Messages (Published)

Power and ideology, which are two main concerns in critical discourse analysis (CDA) approach, have become medium for each other to innervate and sustain each other in the society.  Both of them can be manifested via the use of some linguistic expressions and forms. Halliday’s Systematic functional linguistic (SFL), can be applied in the sake of investigating those linguistic forms in harmony with CDA. The current article investigates the use of deixis to represent power relations and ideologies in two messages of Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi (leader of ISIS). The analysis involves CDA based on the works of van Dijk (2000 & 2008) and Fairclough (1989, 1995& 2003) in addition to Halliday’s SFL (1985 & 1994). The conclusions manifested different power relations in Al-Baghdadi messages (Allah Almighty and Al-Baghdadi, Al-Baghdadi and Non-Muslims, and Al-Baghdadi and the Muslims). Further, ideologies of principle belief, the believers’ duty and political ideologies are all identified through the use of personal deixis such the pronoun ‘I’ and the pronoun ‘we’ refer to Al-Baghdadi (the speaker) and to ISIS (his group) respectively, the pronoun ‘Him’ and the pronoun ‘He’ represent Allah Almighty. In this context, the pronoun ‘we’ has no power over anyone, while the pronoun ‘Him’ is the powerful one.

Keywords: ISIS, Ideology, Personal Deixis, Power relations, critical discourse analysis

A Critical Discourse Analysis of Newspaper Headlines on the Anglophone Crisis in Cameroon (Published)

This research explores private and public newspaper headlines on the Anglophone crisis in Cameroon from a Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) perspective. The aim is to find out the lexical choice and rhetorical questions used in reporting the crisis, and how they portray the ideologies of the reporters and newspaper ownership, as well as shape readers’ thoughts. Data for this study comprises 130 headlines collected from 29 randomly selected newspapers in Cameroon. Results show the use of vocabulary that shows imposition, tension and dialogue. Some rhetorical questions were also discovered. However, there was a lot of incompatibility in the way government and private newspapers reported the Anglophone crisis. Lexical choice in private newspaper  headlines paint a negative picture of the Cameroon government, and pushes readers to see the government as deliberately refusing to show great attention to the crisis, and unable to protect its citizens. On the other hand, Cameroon Tribune hedge information on the crisis, swallows tension and advocates national unity. The state owned newspaper presents the Anglophone contestants in the crisis as perpetrators or terrorists who are frustrating children’s future. Therefore, the newspaper publishers exercise power through language to influence the thought and opinion of Cameroonians on the Anglophone crisis.

Keywords: Anglophone Crisis, Ideology, Newspaper Headlines, critical discourse analysis

The Translatability of Emotiveness in Political Speeches of King Abdullah Ii of Jordan: A Critical Discourse Analysis (Published)

This study aims at shedding light on the extent to which it is possible to handle the translation of emotive expressions embedded in political speeches delivered by King Abdullah II of Jordan. A critical discourse analysis as well as translation studies are used to analyze the political speeches. This amalgamation results in a significant success, yielding a deep, comprehensive understanding of the fact that such juxtaposition is actually considered innovative. Five political speeches of King Abdullah II have been selectively chosen and then translated from English into Arabic. The emotiveness of such speeches is investigated, and a discursive analysis is also combined.

Keywords: Discursive Analysis, Emotiveness, Political Discourse, critical discourse analysis

Discourse analysis of political cinema in Iran after the war from 1989 to 2013 (Published)

The aim of this study was to discourse analyze of political cinema in Iran after the war from 1989 to 2013.  For the purpose of this research is descriptive analysis was conducted to collect information on library. Population in three period after the Islamic Revolution “from 1989 to 1996, 1997 to 2005 and from 2006 to 2013” was studied. Discourse analysis of political cinema after the war, within the period specified, underlying the approach of Fairclough and integrate it with roses, Aydma and Kress and Van Leeuwen who are affected by social semiotics, operational model for critical discourse analysis of the film. And with respect to the proposed model Paul Gay, the elements of the six organs, which he identifies as text fragments, examined chosen films. According to the findings in the first period, “1989 to 1996”, pure thoughts patriotic and revolutionary themes have been witnessing a fundamental transformation. Which include two periods, first, the concept of “development” that accompanied the pattern of “rationalitAy” in the Rafsanjani government conceptualized.  The discourse of war, the rise of the urban upper classes and groups based on the concept of “construction”, ie development projects, all of which are examples.  But in the second part of the first period, the discourse of “democracy” and “freedom” are met. In the second decade 1997 to 2005, traditional political discourse, reformer discourse changed. Government film policy, in particular, before and after June, under the sovereignty of political discourse “conservative” and “reformist” has been developed. The third period, from 2006 to 2013 with the victory of Ahmadinejad (2005), to open in 1981 in the form of a new meaning system helped the fundamentalist interpretation. Therefore it can be concluded that the selected films examined in this study have political implications affecting the society of his time.

Keywords: Fairclough and Paul Gay approach, Linguistics, War, critical discourse analysis, political cinema

How do Egyptian Newspapers Tell Us about the Current Ideological Trends (Published)

The present paper attempts to analyse the main front-page headlines of eight Egyptian newspapers, with different mainstream readerships, reporting a single political news issue. On the 13th of April 2013, the retrial of former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak was postponed when the judge withdrew from the case and referred it to another court. The next day, all Egyptian newspapers tackled the event. A critical discourse analysis is carried out to investigate the way language is used to shape certain political ideologies in the newspapers’ headlines. The study concludes that despite their claim of being objective, newspapers represent news in a way that propagates their preferred ideologies. Hence, other than being a means of communication, newspapers seem to be an instrument of power, control and manipulation.

Keywords: Egyptian Newspapers, Headlines, Ideology, Power, critical discourse analysis

Political Discourse: A Critical Discourse Analysis of President Muhammadu Buhari’s Inaugural Speech (Published)

Political speeches are many just as political forums and events are. This Paper Critically analyses the inaugural Speech of President Muhammadu Buhari which was delivered shortly after his swearing into office on the 29th May, 2015. In carrying out the analysis, Norman Furlough’s three dimensional Analytical Models was adapted. Following the model, the speech was subjected to description (text analysis), interpretation (processing/ analysis) and explanation (social practice and analysis). The result of the analysis showed that an inaugural speech is a revelation of plans and hopes in the new government. The speech analyzed particularly revealed the ideologies/ plans on which the new government headed by President Muhammadu Buhari intends to operate. The most important ones include good governance, strengthening international relations, foreign Policies and democracy, fight insecurity, corruption, and improve power supply and the nation’s economy.

Keywords: Discourse, Speech, and political speech, critical discourse analysis