Relying on alternative means for resolving conflicts has become an urgent necessity in our time to keep pace with the social, economic, political, cultural and technological changes that the contemporary world knows. As the judiciary, as the competent authority to adjudicate conflicts and disputes, is no longer able to address the huge number of issues before it. Hence the idea of alternative means to resolve disputes, which received special attention from various legislations, as public policy was becoming tend towards consensual solutions or restorative justice in many issues and areas as a reliable strategic option in resolving disputes. And criminal mediation is one of the newly developed methods resulted by contemporary criminal policy to contribute to treating the massive and continuous increase in the number of cases before criminal courts, and a reliable strategic option in resolving disputes of a simple nature that do not pose a threat to public order.
Crime, Deviance and Delinquency:Diversifying Theoretical Narratives and Transition towards Empirical Research on Boko Haram (Published)
This paper examines crime, deviance and delinquency and their diversifying theoretical narratives; the objective is to provide an empirical basis for appropriate frame work to allow for better explanations of the phenomena in the contemporary society. In order to achieve this objective, the paper stresses the importance of empirical research by examining abstract theoretical postulates on crime, deviance and delinquency. This is achieved by employing a modified methodological approach to the research design with crucial elements of qualitative research, as content analysis are employed in integrated forms at different stages during this research. The paper discusses differential analysis of juvenile delinquency, young person’s offenders and adult criminal typology. It also looks at the apparatus to gauge crime, deviance and delinquency and its social relations to the basics about crime, deviance and delinquency, to what it means to a criminologist, other academics and to a layman. As a corollary to this, a new sociological and/or criminological definition of crime, deviance and delinquency is presented as finding during the cause of this research. More so, in order to have deeper understanding of the phenomena under review, diversifying theoretical narratives from socio-psychobiological dimensions to crime of the Boko Haram suicide phenomenon has been contextualized while Classical Social Tripodal Model provides thrust for such empirical research. Furthermore, in order to have a suitable frame work for the analysis of the phenomena of crime, deviance and delinquency, different theoretical perspectives are reviewed ranging from the Mertonian Anomie Perspectives, Albert Cohen’s Delinquent Boys; Southerland’s Differential Association to Concentric Zone Perspectives of Shaw and McKay; Social Disorganization and/or Cultural Transmission and Claward and Ohlin’s Differential Opportunity Structural Theoretical Perspective were reviewed including the Marxian political economy perspective to crime, deviance and delinquency. The biological and/or constitutional perspectives pioneered by Cesare Lombroso’s Theory of ‘Atavistic Stigmata’ and Sheldon’s ‘Theory of Somatotypes’ are also discussed. Following this, within the biological school, the paper examines the XY Chromosomes model, heredity versus crime, deviance and delinquency with a view to setting a framework that would allow for better explanation of the nature of crime, deviance and delinquency in the contemporary social milieu. The research concludes with an examination of the premise of psycho-dynamic or psycho-analytic frame work to crime deviance and delinquency.
How the availability of private security services assist in crime control in Nairobi County, Kenya (Published)
The study was motivated by the fact that despite the presence of private security companies and the availability of their services in Nairobi city, there was still an upsurge of insecurity. This study was informed by Situational crime prevention and Crime prevention through environmental design theories. Descriptive survey research design was used, and the study utilized stratified random sampling technique to select respondents from the study population which was 500 respondents. Data were obtained using a combination of a questionnaire and interview schedule. Copies of the questionnaire were administered to 151 respondents, who were drawn from the private security companies in the area of study, and the members of staff working in the private institutions and also the area residents. The study was carried out in Karen location which is an upper market estate in Nairobi County. The study identified five categories of crime control services provided by private security companies, with providing alarm response and loss prevention being the major crime control service. The study further found that majority of the residents in the study area goes for the medium level security premium which offers alarm response and security guarding services. Findings revealed that a majority of respondents (52%) perceived the level of effectiveness by private security companies to be fairly moderate, 28% perceived them to be average and 20% of the respondents perceived them to be good. Overall, private security services, were perceived, to be relevant in crime control in Karen location.
Reexamining India’s Counter Terrorism Strategy (Published)
Terrorism in India is looked at as one of the aspects of maintenance of Law and Order which is a subject matter of federal units under the Indian constitution. Hence the Police Departments of the States which are responsible for maintaining law and order deal with terrorism, which is not enough. Central Government of India and Central Security Forces should be playing an important role in Planning and execution of confrontation with terrorism. But technicalities of the constitution do not make it possible. That is why; Central Government has set up a National Counter Terrorism Centre. It has not yet been put into practice, because of the resistance by federal units. If India wants to manage terrorism in real sense, then it is imperative to consider terrorism as a federal Crime and National Emergency like incidents. In order to prohibit such criminal acts, India needs to initiate a comprehensive internal security like US and Israel.
The present world is technology driven as it is employed by many fields in the performance of their operation. In the case of law enforcement agencies, this is evident in the use of automated crime record management systems (CRMS) worldwide to keep record of crime and criminals involved. Crime being an act against the law of a society is a threat to the well-being of the populace and so, requires efficient and effective monitoring. For this reason, CRMS have been developed to achieve this purpose. However, in Nigeria, the CRMS employed is majorly manual, which is, the use of pen and paper. This records are therefore susceptible to destruction from pests and uncensored manipulation by both authorized and unauthorized personnel. This crude method has resulted in problems in the areas of authenticity, security, retrieval, storage, and exchange of information within the NPF. This research aims to design and implement a computerized real time (CRMS) for the (NPF). In developing this CRMS, the waterfall model of system development was adopted through the stages of requirement elicitation from stakeholders of the CRMS to the systems design and analysis using tools such as entity relationship diagrams for the database and use case diagrams which describe user requirements. The system was implemented using Hypertext Mark-up Language (HTML) for a highly interactive graphical user interface, PHP and MySQL for a robust database. The CRMS enhances efficiency in correcting the problems earlier stated and it is an effective tool for easy analysis of data which will improve the NPF’s law enforcement operations, it also allows for criminal records check by Background Check Companies (BCC). The application of the CRMS will result in lower threat level to the Nigerian citizens, thus, improving national buoyancy.
The harm arising from cybercrime and technology misuse in our society is on the increase and is rapidly claiming attentions both nationally and internationally. The consequence of a single successful cyber attack can have far-reaching implications which may involve huge financial losses, theft of intellectual property, loss of confidence and trust between sellers and customer which eventually affects the economy of a nation. The purpose of this study is to explore the overall view of what cybercrime connotes and the various means through which they manifest in our society. The paper also analyzed the impacts of these crimes and proposed mitigating measures on how it can be alleviated to the barest level if not utterly eradicated from our society.