Analyses of Cowpea Grains Stored with Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage (PICS) Technology in Madagali Local Government of Adamawa State, Nigeria (Published)
Cowpea is a food security crop and a main source of income for farmers in Nigeria. However, postharvest storage remains a major challenge due to insect pest attack. Infestations impose serious challenge to cowpea storage and negatively affect trade and utilization of cowpea in Nigeria. Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage (PICS) technology provides effective control against these storage pests, thus, allowing farmers to tap into better grain prices during the lean season. The study analysed the gains in cowpea stored with PICS technology in Madagali Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. The objectives of the study include; determining the effect of PICS technology use on cowpea loss and to estimate the returns to cowpea stored with PICS technology. Two hundred and forty (240) respondents were identified and interviewed using networking or snowballing non-random sampling technique. The analytical tools used for the study were the gravimetric (count and weight) method and marketing margin analysis. The result of the study showed that storing with PICS technology reduced weight loss in cowpea by 16.3%, valued at N3, 450 per bag per season. The use of PICS technology gave a higher marketing margin of N11, 297.88/bag with farm-to-retail price spread of 45.5% than N8, 285.83/bag and farm-to-retail price spread of 37.8% in woven bag. The study recommends that, farmers association be used as an avenue to promote and create awareness on the economic benefits of PICS technology.
Keywords: Madagali, PICS technology, Profitability, Storage, count and weight, cowpea
Assessment of Field Insect Pests Damage on Cowpea in Gombe State, Nigeria (Published)
Survey of cowpea growing areas in the Eleven (11) Local Government Areas of Gombe State was carried out. Ten (10) communities each were sampled in Akko, Balanga, Yamaltu, Deba, Kaltungo, Nafada, Bajoka, Billiri, Kwami and Gombe Local Government Areas in 2017 and 2018 cropping seasons. The objective was to establish pest incidence and level of damage caused by insect pests in farmers’ fields. Questionnaires and discussions with practicing farmers, state agricultural extension workers from 107 sample sites, 100 cowpea pods were selected at random and analyzed for percentage pod damage by pod borers and pod sucking bugs. The cropping systems in which cowpea was grown were noted and percentage seed losses due to pests from each cropping system were analyzed and recorded. From the results, major insect pests encountered during the field visits were: foliage beetles, ants, termites, flower pests [thrips (Megalurothrips usitatus) and blister beetle (Mylabris pustulata)], pod borers (Helicoverpa armigera, Maruca testulalis, Etiella zinckenella), pod sucking bugs (Anoplocnemis curvipes, Riptortus dentipes, Clavigralla tomentosicollis, Nezara viridula), aphids (Aphis craccivora), and leaf damaging weevils (Myllocerus undecimpustulatus). Results also revealed that mean damage by pod sucking bugs was highest in Balanga (74.74%), Kwami (90.4%) and Yamultu/Deba (91.04%) and least in Balanga (48%) than the damage by pod borers in all the communities surveyed. Among the cropping systems observed in the areas, cowpea/maize intercrop recorded greater damage by pod borers than pod sucking bugs while cowpea/millet intercrop had the least damage by pod borers and pod sucking bugs followed by sole cropping.
Keywords: Damage, Insects pests, cowpea, cropping systems, pod borers, sucking bugs