Tag Archives: COVID-19

Qualitative analysis of mental health issues among at-home workers in the COVID-19 era: implications for clinical intervention (Published)

Little research attention has been given to mental health issues arising from the lifestyle change of working from home in the Nigerian context. Likewise, research findings in the extant literature on mental wellbeing of employees working from home are mixed. Therefore, the qualitative study examines mental health issues among at-home workers in the Covid-19 era to serve clinical practice and intervention. Data were obtained from 106 employees in service organisations in South-western, Nigeria, using a questionnaire with closed-ended questions. Results showed that employees’ experiences reflected a range of relatively mild mental health issues such as fears, anxiety and some elements of depressive disturbances/symptoms with sex differences on some of their concerns. Findings revealed that employees are delighted about working from home because they feel protected from contracting corona virus and are able to stretch their work routine far into the day with frequent breaks. Respondents commonly reported that working from home was stressful/less productive and generated work-family conflict issues. They reported difficulties arising from inadequate equipment and challenges associated with communicating with co-workers and supervisors. The practical implications of findings for mental health, clinical practice and intervention are discussed.

Citation: Mojisola S. Ajayi & David. E. Okurame (2021) Qualitative analysis of mental health issues among at-home workers in the COVID-19 era: implications for clinical intervention, International Journal of Health and Psychology Research, Vol.9, No.3, pp.1-15

Keywords: COVID-19, Clinical intervention, Mental Health, Nigerian employees, at-home workers

Online Teaching and Learning: Perceptions and Readiness of Pre-Service Teachers (Published)

The study sought to evaluate pre-service teachers’ perceptions and readiness towards online learning in Akatsi College of Education. The study used descriptive survey design. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from two hundred and twenty-three pre-service teachers who were purposively sampled for the study. The data collected was analysed using percentages, means and standard deviations. The results revealed that majority of the pre-service teachers preferred face-to-face to online method, found it difficult using online learning facilities. Majority of the pre-service teachers perceived that the use of online learning would improve their creativity in disseminating and experiencing learning.  In addition, majority of the pre-service teachers did not have good internet broadband to get them connected to an online learning class. They were also distracted at homes during online lessons coupled with erratic power supply. Majority of the preservice teachers have negative perceptions and were not ready for online learning. Consequently, it was recommended that Government of Ghana invested more in the area of communication infrastructural facilities as well as partnering with telecommunication companies to provide very effective broadband internet connectivity to college servers and students at reasonable cost to facilitate online learning classes.

Citation: Mark Mishiwo,  Benedicta Enid Mawuse Danku,  Martha Ayivor, Florence Doe  (2021) Online Teaching and Learning: Perceptions and Readiness of Pre-Service Teachers, British Journal of Education, Vol. 9, Issue 9, pp.101-113

Keywords: COVID-19, Perceptions, Pre-Service Teachers, online learning, readiness

Effects of COVID-19 pandemic on accounting and financial reporting in Nigeria (Published)

The predicament that befell the entire world as a result of the Covid 19 has been a matter of concern researchers. This paper hereby examines the effects of COVID-19 pandemic on accounting and financial reporting in Nigeria. The objectives of this paper are to ascertain the differences between the published financial reporting before and during COVID-19 era; determine how firms in Nigeria reported events after the reporting period during the COVID- 19 era as recommended by the Financial Reporting Council; ascertain the extent to which COVID-19 affects the going concern of firms in Nigeria; determine how COVID-19 affects the interim financial reporting affected; and to examines how firms in Nigeria reported changes in expected credit losses for financial assets as stated in the guideline recommended by Financial Reporting Council during COVID-19 era. The study employs cross-sectional approach where data were collected at a particular point in time from different companies. Secondary financial data was collected from multiple sample sources to ensure a fair representation, namely: The Manufacturing sector, financial sectors and conglomerates of the Nigerian economy. Independent t-test and Logit Binary Regression Model was employed to test the hypotheses of the study using SPSS version 25. This paper revealed that there is significant difference between the published financial reporting before and during COVID-19 era; COVID-19 has significant effect on the events after the reporting period, going concern of firms in Nigeria, interim financial reporting, and COVID-19 has significant effect on changes in expected credit losses for financial assets. Arisen from the findings of this study, this paper recommended that management of industries should embrace all the COVID-19 precautions, and government should salvage this devastating effect of COVID-19 by channelling more funds to the sectors affected by the pandemic.

Citation: Raimi Adekunle ANISERE-HAMEED (201) Effects of COVID-19 pandemic on accounting and financial reporting in Nigeria, European Journal of Accounting, Auditing and Finance Research, Vol.9, No. 6, pp.50-63


Keywords: Accounting, COVID-19, Financial Reporting, pandemic

An Analysis of COVID-19 Poster of the Ghana Health Service: A Semiotic Approach (Published)

The COVID-19 virus is a new virus linked to the same family of viruses as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The virus is primarily spread between people during close contact, most often via small droplets produced by coughing, sneezing, and talking. The droplets usually fall to the ground or onto surfaces rather than travelling through air over long distances. Transmission may also occur through smaller droplets that are able to stay suspended in the air for longer periods of time. Less commonly, people may become infected by touching a contaminated surface and then touching their face. A number of people in Ghana are continually being infected on daily basis and as such the government has made efforts to reduce the spread and rate of infections through one of its agencies, Ghana Health Service under the Ministry of Health by educating the general public to observe the safety protocols through a COVID-19 poster advertisement. The rationale for choosing COVID-19 poster for the study is because posters are multimodal texts that combine textual and visual modes to educate the Ghanaian populace to adhere to the COVID-19 safety protocols. Textual modes refer to the words written on the selected poster while visual modes refer to the non-verbal signs displayed in the image. The objective of this study is to investigate how semiotic and textual modes are exploited to control and direct the attitude of the reader towards the images. The educative poster of the Ghana Health Service was subjected to a qualitative analysis using Barthes (1998) Semiotic Theory. This research looks at the visual and textual modes of the COVID-19 poster used at vantage points in public places and in various institutions. A descriptive research design was employed for this study as the most suitable for the attainment of the study objectives. The findings show that COVID-19 poster generally deliver a message that together we can defeat COVID-19 by following the safety protocols and obeying government regulations. And also, by observing and analysing the verbal and visual signs in the poster, each of these images and verbal signs are designed to convey an idea or a message, and communicate to readers to have a special effect on them. Again, this study establishes that the visual design as visual language is culturally specific and that the poster represents our environment; social interaction that is the interaction between the producer of the image and the reader.

Citation: Eric Aning (2021) An Analysis of COVID-19 Poster of the Ghana Health Service: A Semiotic Approach, European Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, Vol.9, No.6, pp.56-68

Keywords: COVID-19, Visual modes, multimodal, semiotic modes, textual modes

Emotional Dissonance and Psychological Burnout on Role Performance among COVID-19 Frontline Healthcare Workers (Published)

A sporadic novel corona virus disease, COVID-19 was first diagnosed in humans in Wuhan, China in December 2019. Since this unprecedented occurrence, COVID-19 has become a global pandemic leading to short- and long-term psychological ill-health to people from all walks of life.  In this situational framework, patients and front-line healthcare workers have become the most vulnerable. The main aim of the study was to explore emotional dissonance and psychological burnout on role performance of COVID-19 frontline healthcare workers in Busia County, Kenya. Cross-sectional   research design was employed. A standardized set of questionnaire was used to quantify the data. For this study, the researchers adopted multi-stage sampling technique to collect the data from the frontline healthcare workers in selected public hospitals in Busia County. The collected data were analyzed with multivariate regression analysis while qualitative findings were transcribed under themes.The findings show that emotional dissonance had an influence on role performance of frontline HCWs since the results are statistically significant. Males were more likely to experience emotional dissonance as opposed to females. Conversely, the findings revealed that psychological burnout had an insignificant relationship with role performance.  Probably the sample size was small or the test items failed to meet the assumptions of the cultural orientation of the majority of the participants in the study.  The outbreak of Covid-19 pandemic might have conflicted with the Healthcare Workers calling and professional orientation. Most frontline healthcare workers in hospitals had not received adequate psychotherapy in preparation for COVID-19. Emotional dissonance seems more (certainly-delete) a consequence of unprecedented infection. Certainly Healthcare Workers obligation to save life might have been frustrated leading to exaggerated emotional dissonance and decline in performance output. Knowledge levels about COVID (have-delete) proved to have massive impact on severity and susceptibility of Healthcare Workers.There is need to bridge the gap in the knowledge levels, help improve on the understanding on how to freely handle the pandemic. Call for bridging the gaps in training of healthcare workers to overcome the fear that comes with knowledge of COVID-19 adversities. Intensified counselling and psychosocial support to HealthCare Workers and community sensitisation. Further research on home-based care since it has proven to be affordable alternative to hospital care or isolation.


Keywords: COVID-19, Role Performance, emotional dissonance, frontline healthcare workers, psychological burnout

COVID-19 and Education in Oman (Published)

COVID-19 pandemic has swept through the world and brought about abrupt changes in every sector of life, including the area of ELT (English language teaching). This essay explores briefly from my humble point of view, as an in-service Omani cycle 2 English teacher, the impact of the current pandemic on ELT curriculum, teaching methods, and educational growth of teachers.

Keywords: COVID-19, ELT, Education, Oman

The Covid-19 Pandemic and the Questioning of the Principle of the Human Development Index (Published)

The covid19 epidemic has definitely affected nearly all economic and social activities across the world, in addition to its destructive and fatal impacts. As a result, estimates for global economic growth have been lowered downward. Furthermore, the pandemic scenario has pushed scientific study in new areas in order to discover answers to the new problems that have arisen as a result of the epidemic. We have questioned the idea of calculating the human development index (HDI) in this context, while providing new assessment criteria judged useful and compatible with pandemic conditions to evaluate sub-dimensional development indicators pertaining to health, education, and income. As a result, we have shown that the environmental dimension is necessary for measuring the progression of the HDI, allowing us to offer a novel HDI calculation formula.

Keywords: COVID-19, Human development, Index, pandemic, principle

Knowledge, Behaviour and Perception of the Traders Toward’s Receiving Covid-19 Vaccine in Lapai Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria (Published)

This study sought to find out the knowledge, behaviour and perception of traders towards receiving Covid-19 vaccine in Lapai local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Accidental sampling was used to sample 200 respondents in Lapai daily markets. A self-developed questionnaire was used as research instrument to sample 200 respondents. Descriptive statistics of frequency counts, percentages and mean were used to analyse the research questions. Chi-square goodness-of-fit test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The majority of traders had adequate knowledge of Covid-19 (c2= 122.280; p <0.05), and conformed moderately to Covid-19 guideline protocol (c2= 18.320; p <0.05). Findings further revealed that there was negative perception of traders in embracing Covid-19 vaccine (c2= 45.880; p <0.05).The perceptions of traders generally were negative and not conforming with Covid-19 guideline protocols and they were not welcoming the vaccine, as they believed it may have side effect after receiving it. Traders concluded that only same vaccine received by the president of Nigeria will be accepted by them. The study recommends amongst others that traders must be enlightened to have adequate knowledge on the virus in other to change their negative behaviours to conform to COVID-19 guideline protocols. The importance of vaccination to the traders and its long time benefits must be emphasized to have Covid-19 free country.

Keywords: Behaviour, COVID-19, Knowledge, Perception, vaccine

Thai EFL learners’ Voices on Learning English Online during the COVID-19 Pandemic (Published)

During the current pandemic, the unprecedented closure of universities and schools has revived the application of fully online teaching and learning. This study aims to explore Thai EFL learners’ views on online learning implementation during the Covid-19 outbreaks. Data were collected qualitatively with 30 Thai undergraduate students majoring in business English through written reflections, and five of whom were selected purposively to participate in a semi-structured interview. Based on qualitative data analysis, the findings indicated that the student participants expressed positive attitudes towards online learning as it was seen as suitable during the current pandemic, yet they preferred learning English in face-to-face classrooms to online ones. Also, unstable internet connection, lack of interaction and teachers’ explanation, as well as potential distractions were common challenges for their online English learning. Suggestions were also provided by the participants, and pedagogical implications were discussed.

Keywords: COVID-19, EFL Learners’, Reflections, online learning

Perception and Reality: United States Mortality (Published)

Our perception of the world is often taken for granted. There are many theories of perception and often they can appear contradictory. Likely, the various theories are focusing on different aspects of a very complex process. For example, in the fairy tale Little Red Cap (Grimm and Grimm 1909) Little Red’s perceptual set fails her when the wolf successfully masquerades as Red’s grandmother. Little Red’s past experience, emotion and context did not help her make sense of new stimuli which lead to her untimely demise. The purpose of this paper is to tease your perception process, not with fairy tales but by presenting U.S. Mortality counts and context statistics for various years including details for the most recent death season 2019-20.  The examination herein provides a timely example of how models of perception conflict with the rich rationality and behavioral literature.

Keywords: : U.S. Crude Death Rates, COVID-19, Context in Perception

E-Food Commerce, Nutrition Economics and Consumer Behaviour: Before And After Covid-19 (Published)

Consumer behaviors and purchases are complex concepts and strongly influenced by personal, psychological, sociocultural and environmental factors. This paper proposed an innovative comprehensive consumer behavior framework for use as a logical tool that assists in planning for local and national food programs aimed at complex socioeconomic, environmental and public health problems such as COVID-19. The progress of the Internet of things and the social media reported here provides a platform for accelerated actions that could have major positive implications for public health nutrition in the post COVID-19 world.  

Keywords: COVID-19, Consumer Behavior, digital food systems, e-food commerce, nutrition economics, public health nutrition

Use of Modern Technology for Teaching by Business Educators during Covid-19 Era (Published)

The aim of the study was to examine the use of modern technology for teaching by business educators in COVID-19 Era in public universities in Edo State. The population of the study was one hundred and eighty nine (189) business educators in universities in Edo and Delta States as at January, 2021. The entire population was used for the study; therefore there was no sampling. Three research questions gave credence to the study and one hypothesis was formulated. A descriptive survey was adopted for the study, and a 32-item structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Four experts validated the instrument. The reliability was tested using Cronbach alpha which yielded 0.82 was obtained as reliability co-efficient value. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions. The formulated null hypothesis was tested at 0.05 alpha level with a t-test inferential statistics. The findings revealed that business educators make use of moodle/sloodle; online collaboration; and crowdsourcing to a very low extent in teaching during this covid-19 era. The finding further revealed that male lecturers do not differ significantly from female lecturers in the use of modern technology in teaching. Against this back drop it was recommended that management of various institutions should embark on training of its staff for the use of modern technology to teach during the Covid-19 era.

Keywords: COVID-19, crowdsourcing, moodle, online collaboration, sloodle

The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Education in Cambodia (Published)

This paper reviewed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on education by preliminary document studies. In Cambodia, as of 30 October 2020, school closures replaced by distance learning. First, the paper highlighted the immediate impact on student learning and wellbeing, mostly kids. Second, it illustrated teachers and school personnel are facing on adapting with ICT skills to support distance learning. Third, it showed ineffective delivery of continuous learning and learning outcomes are not quite well and limit for quality of education. Finally, it stated the implementation of the Ministry of Education Youth and Sports (MoEYS) Education Strategic Plan (ESP) 2019-2023 is also severely impacted by the pandemic. To address these challenges, MoEYS developed learning platforms and continue learning programs for line learning. The Joint Technical Working Group (JTWG), MoEYS and ESWG created objectives for the Education COVID-19 Response Plan. MoEYS is planning to reopen educational institutions in three phases with the strictest health safety standards by blended learning following the Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for the condition of Covid-19. The paper recommended that the government and MoEYS and stakeholders should respond to the situations during the Covid-19 pandemic: i). The continuous learning program should be strengthened as a priority for online learning with social media to ensure effective learning; ii). The digital infrastructure should be promoted in the countryside and remote areas to strengthen online learning with the platforms of MoEYS; iii). The ICT skills and digital education should be strengthened by providing training and development to teachers to ensure effective online learning; and teachers and students engagement, and iv). The content and curriculum on paper should be adapted and replaced by digital form to ensure effective learning and teaching.

Keywords: COVID-19, Education, Impact, pandemic

The effectiveness of culture on EFL learners during COVID-19 (Published)

This article aims to investigate the relationships between culture and Language. The motivation for this article is driven from the need to understand how culture plays an effective role in learning EFL through suitable specific instructional strategies. One of the educators ‘ attempts is to take the advantage of the technology to invest the culture to get effective learning of the English Language through E-tools. And this serves and support education in the age of COVID-19.Language is the backbone of communication. It is more than vocabularies and grammar, it comprises cultural, social, and communicative settings that were considered the fruitful environment to learn the language. Teaching cultural content via E-tools is a unique method of teaching the English Language in the crisis to bridge the educational gaps in the students’ learning in the E- space of learning. There are cultural issues that are deserved to be learned and adopting them in the educational system for widening the pupils ‘minds toward learning English as a second language. Those issues could be implemented by suitable teaching strategies to let students learn professionally as well as to overcome the cultural challenges in light of COVID-19.

Keywords: COVID-19, Culture, Language, Second Language

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Preventive Measures towards COVID-19 among Pregnant Women Attending Selected Primary Health Centre’s in Osogbo, Osun State (Published)

Background: COVID-19 is a new viral disease, and health researchers are currently evaluating its effects on pregnant women and their unborn children. There is dearth of research available to support the argument that pregnant women are at greater risk of COVID-19 disease.Methods: This study used an exploratory research design to examine the knowledge, attitude and practice of preventive measures towards COVID-19 among pregnant women in Osogbo, Osun state. 382 subjects were selected using a simple random technique. Self-developed questionnaire was the instrument used to collect data. The data collected were analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) and the results were presented using tables and percentages. Six null hypotheses were tested using chi-square at 0.05 level of significance. Results: Result of this study shows that nearly half of the respondents are within 18-25 (45.0%) years of age, 79(63.6%) are Muslims and 358(93.7%) are from the Yoruba tribe. This study also reveals that the respondents do have significant knowledge on the novel Coronavirus disease and a good attitude towards the prevention of COVID-19 as they practice frequent hand washing, sanitizer use and maintenance of social distancing. From the hypothesis tested, there is significant association between the education level of the respondents and their knowledge and attitude of preventive measures towards COVID-19 and no association between the age of the pregnant women and practice of preventive measures towards COVID-19. Conclusion: From the study, there seems to be a moderate level of awareness on the preventive measures towards COVID-19 among pregnant women in Osogbo but increase in the level of awareness and educational program can be done by the government and health workers in order have a very good attitude and awareness which will eventually improve the rate of adherence and compliance towards COVID-19 preventive measures.


Keywords: COVID-19, Knowledge, Preventive, attitude, pregnancy

Prevalence and Covid-19 Testing (Published)

An outbreak of pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China was initially reported to the World Health Organization in December 2019.  Global health authorities purportedly identified a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) which continues to effect most of the world.  Diagnostic testing for SARS-CoV-2 continues to advance and interpreting test results is paramount.  The most commonly used diagnostic test has been the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction amplification.  Determining test precision not only depends on operating characteristics, sensitivity and specificity, but more importantly on prevalence of the infectious in the population tested.  This paper develops a numerical optimizer (model) to explore the effect of prevalence on surveillance testing accuracy.  Findings herein suggest that large scale COVID-19 surveillance testing should be curbed or eliminated.  Results advocate a more flexible and narrowly targeted approach to testing strategies.

Keywords: COVID-19, Prevalence, SARS-CoV-2 testing

The Impact of Covid-19 Induced Capital Flight on the Bond and Foreign Exchange Markets In Ghana (Published)

This paper provides evidence on the adverse effects of Covid-19 induced capital flight on the bond and foreign exchange markets in Ghana. Based on trend analysis, the study found significant portfolio reversals after the country recorded its first case of Covid-19 on March 12, 2020. This excessive capital flight had a far-reaching adverse impact on nominal exchange rate. Precisely, the Ghanaian Cedi shed earlier gains recorded in the first half of the year against the US Dollar. The prime contribution of this study is that it provides insight into the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the bond and foreign exchange markets in Ghana. To the best of our knowledge, this study is novel in the sense that no prior study has examined the response of the domestic bond market and nominal exchange rate to unanticipated global shocks in Ghana. The findings imply that, over-reliance on foreign portfolio inflows renders the bond and foreign exchange market vulnerable to unanticipated external shocks. Thus, the Covid-19 pandemic is a wake-up call for operationalization of policies to strategically develop the domestic bond market in order to build a wider domestic investor base to cushion the Ghanaian economy from such shocks.

Keywords: COVID-19, Foreign Exchange Market, Ghana, bond market, capital fight

Covid-19and Education: A Case for Experiential Learning Theory (Published)

Education is a key player in addressing any social problem; it provides individuals with the necessary skills and knowledge to cope with any eventuality. Conceiving the fact that the school is a veritable tool to fixing the society in all spheres of life, including outbreak of diseases such as COVID-19, this study makes a case for Experiential Learning Theory (ELT) as an appropriate pedagogical approach so that information and facts about the disease can be brought to real life situations. Opinions and ideas on COVID-19 were obtained from secondary sources and analysed qualitatively leading to the suggestion that schools should reopen for students to leverage the opportunities which COVID-19 has presented to education.

Keywords: : Experiment, COVID-19, Disease, Learning, Teachers, distancing

The Financial Impact of COVID-19 on Poultry Industry in Nigeria (Published)

The covid-19 pandemic as declared by WHO in March 2020 is a game changer that introduced a “new normal” of every facet of life, every sector of the economy and every cluster of the population. The key indicators of business plan and continuity, government policies and security imopacting logistics have been affected and in all affecting the short-term survival rate of the poultry industry.The analysis revealed that all proxies of covid-19 indicators such as business plan and continuity, government policies and security impacting logistics have a significant positive effect on the financial health of the poultry industry (Adjusted R2= 0.949, F-statistics = 5.512 : p= 0.000<0.05). Thus, the research concluded that a well-managed Covid-19 indicators and proxies have a significant positive effect on the financial health of the poultry industry in Nigeria.

Keywords: COVID-19, Gross Domestic Product, cycle management., poultry industry

Life-Distress and Work Burnout as Predictors of Organizational Reactions and Social-Emotional Stability of Nurses in Eastern Nigeria (Biafra) (Implications for Covid-19 Health-Care Givers/Providers) (Published)

The study examined life-distress and work-burnout as predictors of nurses’ organizational reactions and social-emotional stability in Eastern Nigeria (Biafra). A cluster-sampled 230 General Hospitals nurses in Anambra State between 25-48 years and SD 5.33 participated, in which valid/reliable instruments, predictive cross-sectional designs, and multiple regression statistics were adopted. Findings were: Life-distress has relationship with organizational reactions of the nurses. Burnout does not have relationship with nurses’ organizational reactions. Life-distress does not have relationship with nurses’ emotional stability. Burnout adversely affects nurses’ emotional stability. Life-distress will not lead to nurses’ organizational reactions. Life-distress will not lead to nurses’ emotional stability. Burnout will not lead to nurses’ organizational reactions. Low burnout will lead to nurses’ emotional stability. Recommendations: While encouraging nurses to develop work competencies for coping with life-distress and burnout, complimentary healthy psycho-organizational enablers should be established in hospitals. This will assist health-care givers cope with pressure of managing COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: Biafra, COVID-19, Nurses, health-care-givers, life-distress, organizational-reactions, social-emotional stability, work-burnout