Tag Archives: Country of origin

Temporary Protection of the Refugee under International Law (Published)

the world is endowed with many conflicts generating a large number of refugees, who flee the unsafe and insecurity places looking for a refuge in a very safe where they can at least enjoy their rights, so, in order to  make refugees feel not abandoned ,states at the international level have set in place international instruments relating to the status of the refugees: the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocols ratified by 134  States respectively establishing a certain number of provisions for the wellbeing of refugees away from their country of origin, the way they should be treated being out of their habitual residence, that is why based on these international legal instruments we could say that refugees are matters of international law, to the extent they derive from one of the accepted trio of international law sources, treaties ,customs or general  principles of  law .so international refugee law ,which governs refugee protection as a branch of international law has been and still in the center of debates among scholars trying to find out  Good solutions  for the Protection of the refugees, then  at least in law, temporary protection is already  the universal norm. The intention here is to highlight the very position of international law concerning temporary protection of the refugees, and some challenges that states have been facing during the protection of the refugees, and some states behaviors during repatriation which breach the international law related to the refugees, temporary protection is a valuable norm in that it codifies a commitment to ensuring the safety and dignity of refugees until they are able to return to their own states.

Keywords: Country of origin, International law, Return, Temporary protection, international refugee law, refugees, repatriation

The Effect Of Country-Of-Origin, Consumer Characteristics And Attitudes On Consumer Behaviour Towards Foreign Clothing Brands In Nairobi, Kenya (Published)

The country-of-origin (COO) concept refers to the country where a particular product is made and is anchored on the international marketing theory. The broad objective of this pioneering study was to determine the effect of COO, consumer characteristics and attitudes on consumer behaviour towards foreign clothing brands in Nairobi, Kenya. The specific objectives were to: assess the influence of COO on consumer behaviour; determine the influence of country-of-origin on consumer attitudes; establish the influence of consumer attitudes on consumer behaviour; assess the influence of consumer characteristics on consumer behaviour; determine the extent to which consumer characteristics moderate the relationship between COO and consumer behaviour; assess the degree to which consumer attitudes influence the relationship between country-of-origin and consumer behaviour and; establish the extent to which the relationship between COO and consumer behaviour towards foreign clothing brands is influenced by consumer characteristics and by consumer attitudes. The pertinent hypotheses were derived from the objectives. The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional research design which facilitated testing of hypotheses quantitatively and ensured that conclusions about the COO research problem were based on the information provided at the time of the research. Primary data were collected using semi-structured questionnaires from a study population comprising 384 consumers of clothing brands across Nairobi County, Kenya. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The results of the study established that country-of-origin influences consumer behaviour towards foreign clothing brands and there was a significant association among the two. The findings also revealed that consumer characteristics directly influence consumer behaviour and also moderate the relationship between COO and consumer behaviour. There was a significant relationship between consumer characteristics and consumer behaviour. Furthermore, the results showed that consumer attitudes strongly mediate the relationship between country-of-origin and consumer behaviour, and there was a significant association among the two. Finally, the joint effect of COO, consumer characteristics and consumer attitudes was greater than the individual effects of the independent, mediating and moderating variables on consumer behaviour towards foreign clothing brands. The combined effect of these variables on consumer behaviour was also found to be statistically significant. The study has made contribution to theory, policy and practice in relation to consumer behaviour towards foreign clothing brands in general and specific influence of country-of-origin, consumer attitudes and consumer characteristics. The selection of the study variables was not exhaustive. The use of a relatively small population, use of a descriptive cross-sectional research design and testing of COO as a single concept put constraints on the generalizability of the results. The use of quantitative methods alone is also restrictive. Future research should seek to address these limitations by inclusion of the additional factors; use of a longitudinal and broader research design and; incorporation of qualitative research techniques such as focus group sessions and structured interviews.

Keywords: Attitudes, Consumer Behaviour, Consumer Characteristics, Country of origin, Foreign Clothing Brands, Kenya, Nairobi

COUNTRY OF ORIGIN EFFECTS AND CONSUMER PRODUCT EVALUATION PROCESS (Published)

The topic is focused on country of origin concept and its impact on consumer product evaluation process. In analyzing, attempt was made from cognitive perspective of country of origin and the processing of consumers prior knowledge about a country’s products and not about the country itself. The analysis reveals that the occurrence of a country of origin-effect in terms of a halo effect, a summary-construct effect, a product attribute effect of a default heuristic effect on the consumer’s evaluative tendency.

Keywords: Cognition, Consumer Behaviour, Country of origin, product evaluation

COUNTRY OF ORIGIN EFFECTS AND CONSUMER PRODUCT EVALUATION PROCESS (Review Completed - Accepted)

The topic is focused on country of origin concept and its impact on consumer product evaluation process. In analyzing, attempt was made from cognitive perspective of country of origin and the processing of consumers prior knowledge about a country’s products and not about the country itself. The analysis reveals that the occurrence of a country of origin-effect in terms of a halo effect, a summary-construct effect, a product attribute effect of a default heuristic effect on the consumer’s evaluative tendency.

Keywords: Cognition, Consumer Behaviour, Country of origin, product evaluation