Impact of Class Size on Early Childhood Education among Primary School in Bwari Area Council (Published)
This study focused on the impact of class size on early childhood education in Bwari Area Council. It is a survey research. The population consists of all early childhood education pupils in Bwari Ara Council. The stratified and random sampling techniques were used to select a sample of 155. The instrument is a self-developed questionnaire titled “Impact of Class Size on Early Childhood Education Questionnaire”. The psychometric properties were determined through a test – retest method of reliability. Using Pearson “ϒ” it yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.76 which was found to be reliable enough. Four (4) Research questions and two hypotheses were formulated for the study and analyzed using t-test statistics. It was found that a significant relationship exists between the mean ratings of the impact of class size and early childhood education. Recommendations, amongst others, include reducing a large class to a manageable one with appropriate counseling approaches.
VOTING POWERS AND A FUNCTIONAL REPRESENTATION OF THE VOTING CLOUT OF UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL MEMBERS WITH VETO POWER RELAXATION (Published)
An independent mathematical structure was developed for the computation of the voting powers of United Nations Security Council members using the Shapley value concept, cooperative games and deft constructions of coalition sets. The results, obtained through Microsoft Excel implementations show that each permanent member has more than ten times as much voting clout as all ten nonpermanent members put together. A sensitivity analysis-based theorem was formulated to address this unacceptable unwholesome lopsidedness in voting powers while preserving the veto status of permanent members.Finally the paper exploited the Shapley value concept to obtain mathematical formulations and representations of voting powers of the members subject to any resolution passing threshold of votes supported by at least a partial coalition of Permanent representatives. The solution expressions can be used to obtain various levels of voting powers by appropriate adjustments of the parameters, thus giving prescriptions for more equitable distribution of voting powers.