Tag Archives: Cost

Optimization in apparel supply chain using Artificial Neural Network (Published)

Labour costs in the apparel manufacturing industry in Bangladesh have increased dramatically. Hence, there is no alternative way to optimize the apparel supply chain to survive in the competitive market. In this study, we implemented artificial neural networks (ANN) in apparel manufacturing organizations to optimize the supply chain by convergent on the right supplier selection by analyzing their performance criteria. Moreover, data was collected from three different factories to analyze the efficiency and profit-loss status of their units. Furthermore, analyze the supplier selection criteria of three suppliers in order to select the right supplier at the right time in the apparel manufacturing industry. This study shows that it can save 18% of the total cost. Additionally, the mathematical analysis has been performed to validate the data analysis for the right supplier selection based on the performance criteria.

Shibbir Ahmad and Mohammad Kamruzzaman (2022) Optimization in Apparel Supply Chain Using Artificial Neural Network, European Journal of Logistics, Purchasing and Supply Chain Management, Vol.10 No.1, pp.1-14



Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Cost, profit, right supplier selection, supply chain optimization

An Analysis of the Relationship between the Costs of Title Registration and Property Investment Yields within Owerri, Imo State of Nigeria (Published)

Land is required for various forms of investment. However, to use land for/as investment, security of title is essential. Security of title is practically achieved through title registration. Primarily, without such title registration, security of investment in land is not guaranteed and therefore investment in land becomes very unattractive and sometimes even impossible. Every investment is fundamentally targeted at the investment yield, hence the need to reconcile the process of securing such an investment. This process is inescapably associated with costs. The effect of such costs on the investment yield becomes imperative. This paper investigated the impact of the total cost of land title registration (direct cost – officially approved fees paid in the cause of title registration + indirect cost- the impact of bureaucratic delays during title registration and the impact of changes in  government policies) on property investment yield in Owerri, Imo State.  The empirical research methodology was employed while survey research design was adopted for study. Research questions and hypotheses were also formulated to guide the study in consonance with the objectives. Primary data was obtained from a questionnaire administered to forty respondents. These 40 include investors in landed property that are registered with the Imo State Ministry of Lands, Survey and Physical Planning. The study utilized mean scores to answer the research questions and Analysis of variance to test the hypotheses formulated. The hypotheses tested revealed that direct cost of title registration and bureaucracy (indirect) have a significant relationship with property investment yield in Owerri, Imo State; while cost of title registration and changes in policy by government equally showed some significant relationship with property investment yield in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria at 5% level of significance. The empirical findings from data analysis helps us to conclude that there exist a significant relationship between cost of title registration, property investment yields in Owerri, Imo State and changes in government policy. This relationship was observed to be inversely proportional to the yield on property investment in Owerri, Imo state. This paper criticized the registration process of land in Nigeria, which is both slow and expensive and proposes an efficient, simpler, easier and less expensive land registration process that will encourage investment in Nigeria.

Keywords: Cost, Nigeria, Owerri, investment yield, property investment, title registration

Determinants of Internal Audit Function Outsourcing Among Micro, Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Lagos State (Published)

Micro, Small and Medium Scale enterprises (MSMEs) are recognized globally as the bedrock of meaningful development in any economy. MSMEs significantly contribute to employment and the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in emerging economies. Sequel to the economic recession, the Federal Government through the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) established a N75billion survival fund to revitalize the MSMEs in the county. Consequently, and to ensure effective utilization of the fund, the study examines the key factors influencing the outsourcing of internal audit function (IAF) among MSMEs in Lagos State. The study adopted survey research design, using purposive sampling technique to select 170 respondents among registered MSMEs by SMEDAN in Lagos. An adapted structured questionnaire was used to collect data, validated using Cronbach alpha with 85% percent response rate. Descriptive and inferential analysis revealed that factors influencing (IAF) outsourcing include asset specificity (3.35), environmental uncertainty (3.53) and cost of auditing (3.43) mean value. This implies that insufficient in-house knowledge, availability of external service providers and cost benefit analysis are major reasons for IAF outsourcing by MSMEs in Nigeria. The study recommended that owners and managers’ of MSMEs should ensure that audit functions are outsourced to external professionals in order to achieve high audit quality at a reduced cost.

Keywords: Cost, Environmental Uncertainty, Internal Audit, Outsourcing, asset specificity

Outsourcing and Organisational Efficiency of Issues in Nigeria: Rivers State University as a Case Study (Published)

This paper is a theoretical paper, and its purpose was to discuss literature on the relationship between outsourcing and organizational efficiency. The paper offers a detailed assessment of outsourcing and its implications for organizational operations and functionality. The resource-based theory was adopted as the theoretical foundation for the study, and it offered a strong position in support of the imperatives of focusing on key assets and responsibilities as a way of enhancing organizational efficiency and ultimately competitiveness. The position reached based on the congruence of views, specifies outsourcing as commendable and required for the efficient functioning of organizations today. On this note, it was concluded that the features of cost and organizational operations are efficiently addressed through the adoption of outsourcing practices and behaviour which are strategic and which allow for the organizations focus on its own key and primary functions. The study also recommended that the practice of outsourcing should be such that emphasizes more on the additional functions and areas identified as weak or overly costly to the organization. Such features can be addressed through a shift in responsibilities to other organizations which are more proficient and structured for that purpose.

Keywords: Cost, Operations, Organizational efficiency, Outsourcing, resources

Factors Influencing Preference for Faith-Based Maternity Health Services Among Pregnant Women in Ogbomoso North LGA, Oyo State (Published)

Poor maternal and child health characterized by high incidence and prevalence of maternal and child mortality and morbidity continues to pose grave challenge to health and development indicators in sub-Saharan Africa. Nigeria occupies a notable position in the region accounting for poor maternal and child health indicators. Utilization of maternal and child health services plays a strong buffering role against maternal mortality. Unfortunately, accessing these services in formal settings among Nigerians especially in rural and per-urban areas is low. Faith based maternity homes provide alternative to maternal health services provided in the formal setting notwithstanding that the procedures involved in majority of such centres are spirituality oriented. Investigating factors influencing the preference of these settings over the formal setting is therefore an important issue for research. This study investigated factors influencing preference for faith based maternity centres among a representative sample of women attending these centres in Ogbomoso North LGA of Oyo State. The descriptive survey research design was employed in the study and data generated from 125 respondents sampled from two faith based maternity centres in the local government area. Generated data were analysed using descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentages and inferential statistics of simple regression at 0.05 alpha level. Findings of the study showed that financial cost (R = 0.686, F(1, 123) = 109.560, p=0.000<0.05.), attitude of health care workers, incessant strike actions and distance of formal health centres significantly influence preference for fait based maternity homes. Recommendations were made on addressing these factors in order to contribute significantly in reducing maternal mortality and morbidity.

Keywords: Cost, Faith-Based, Maternal, Mortality, services

Critical Review of Adjudication and Mediation Methods of Dispute Resolution In Terms Of Time, Costs, Effectiveness and the Overall Interests of the Parties (Published)

This paper identifies the positive and negative aspects of adjudication and mediation as alternative methods of construction dispute resolution to arbitration and litigation.  Upon examination of relevant literature, judicial findings, and anecdotal evidence, it is evident that adjudication and mediation have proven to be less adversarial and more efficient and cost effective approaches to resolving disputes in the Industry.  With the recent improvements in the adjudication process, these have resulted in reducing the incidence of court hearings, and maintaining a working relationship between contracting parties for present and future project purposes.  This research information will allow parties in dispute situations to understand such aspects, and make an informed decision as to which dispute resolution process may best suit their interests, and the interests of those concerned.

Keywords: Adjudication, Adjudicator, Arbitration, Cash flow, Claim, Construction Act, Contract, Cost, Dispute, Jurisdiction, Litigation, Mediation, Mediator, Natural Justice, Notice, Scheme, Summary Judgement, Time, Without Prejudice

Economic Implications of Tomato Production in Naushahro Feroze District of Sindh Pakistan (Published)

In the present study, attempt was made to explore the economic implication of tomato in Nausharo Feroze Sindh. For this purpose 60 growers were selected from different villages of District Naushero Feroze of Sindh province during the year 2013 using survey method of study. The data on various costs, physical and revenue productivity were collected from 60 randomly selected tomato farmers. Result revealed that the education level of selected growers was in order of 25.00% primary (5years), 36.66% of middle (8years), 16.66% matriculate (10years) 3.33% educated from college and university, 1.70% graduate the 18.33% of tomato respondents were illiterate. Results further indicate that farmers incurred an average per hectare fixed costs. Rs 33187.00 include Rs 700.00 for land tax, Rs 32487.00 for rent of land. The results revealed that tomato farmers incurred an average per hectare cost of Rs 19780.75 as labor cost. An average per acre marketing cost of 30457.65 on tomato capital input used, and an average per acre marketing cost was Rs. 4191.73 On an average per acre spent a total cost of production of Rs. 87617.13. An average per acre Physical productivity was 186.00 in mounds. An average per acre Revenue productivity was Rs.158750.00 and the Net income was 71133.00 an availed input output ratio 1:1.81 it means that with the investment of Rs.1.00 in tomato enterprises they yielded Rs.1.81. The cost benefit ratio of the cultivation of tomato at 1:0.81 it means that the tomato growers fetched Rs.0.81 on each rupee investment of tomato. The poor production implies that the soil quality, inadequate canal water, insect pest and poor extension services could be the causes this low production. The empirical result indicates that significant increase in input of tomato in the study area could be traced mainly to use of latest technology.

Keywords: Cost, Labor, Net Returns, Tomato, and cost-benefit ratio., fruit yield

Implications Of Financial Intermediation Cost On Economic Growth In Nigeria (Published)

There is a growing concern as to whether the cost of financial intermediation is having commensurate beneficial implication on economic growth in Nigeria. The main objective of this study is to determine the implications of cost of financial intermediation on economic growth in Nigeria. The study made use of ordinary least square regression analysis. Results for ADF unit root tests show that all variables under consideration are I(1). The co-integration test also indicates long run relationship between cost of financial intermediation and economic growth in Nigeria. The study shows that total loan (TL) has significantly impacted on economic growth in Nigeria, that interest rate has significantly impacted positive on the growth of Nigerian economy and that the level of total deposit over the years has impacted negatively on economic growth in Nigeria. The policy implication is that improper management of financial intermediation cost may have caused several macroeconomic consequences in Nigerian economy and the framework for demonstrating its consequence in the real sector of economy. Hence, the issue of how total loan, interest rate and total deposit linked to the level of economic growth is of a great concern in Nigerian economic performance. We therefore recommend that Nigerian government should ensure that proper control and regulation should be guided the activities of the financial intermediations cost in order to achieve a sound financial system

Keywords: Cost, Economic, Financial, Growth, Intermediation, Nigeria


In this study, the relationship between accounting information and profit planning was empirically investigated. Specifically, the study investigated the effect of cost information, sales information and marketing information on profitability. Descriptive and inferential statistics were carried out on the opinion of 222 top management staff purposively selected from the listed manufacturing companies in Nigeria with the aid of statistical package for social sciences (SPSS version 20). The results of the data analysis carried out in the study revealed that a positive significant relationship exists between accounting information and profitability of manufacturing organizations. Based on this, the study recommends that functioning accounting system should be put in place by the manufacturing companies in Nigeria.

Keywords: Accounting information, Cost, Marketing, Profit planning, Profitability and Manufacturing.


Production planning is the backbone of any manufacturing operation, and its main objective is to determine the quantity of products to be produced and inventory level to be carried from one period to the other, with the objective of minimizing the total costs of production and the annual inventory, while at the same time meeting the customers’ demand. A mathematical model was developed for a multi-product problem using Dynamic Programming approach and the solution procedure proposed by Wagner and Whitin was adopted. The model is very useful in solving a problem with multi-stage problem, a particular situation in which there is appreciable variation in average periodic demand and availability of raw materials among the different periods. It also stipulates the minimum quantities of the product to produce per period and the corresponding inventory levels such that total production cost is minimized over the planning periods

Keywords: Cost, Dynamic, Inventory., Minimum, Model, Production


The study was designed to ascertain the effects of transport cost on the use and continuous use of family planning services in rural Akwa Ibom State. To achieve the purpose, two hypotheses were formulated. Data were collected from a representative sample size of 952 respondents who were women aged 15-49 years. Simple percentages were used in data analysis while Chi-square (X2) and Phi-Coefficient (ɸ) were used in testing the research hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results show that there were significant relationships between transport cost and use and continuous use of family planning services in the study area. The implications of the findings were discussed and strategies for combating the effects of transport cost on utilization of family planning services in rural Nigeria in general and the study area in particular were suggested.

Keywords: Cost, Health, Preventive, Promotive, Rural, Transport, Utilization


The paramount objective of a firm or organization is to earn and maximize profit in the long run. To achieve this, firms put in place diverse strategies, one of which is quality improvement. This value-added activity has some attendant cost implications, so also do the failures in a firm’s product or service. These cost implications together make up the group of quality costs, and they put a strain on the profit making ability of a firm. The objectives of this study were to find out how quality costs can be managed and how their management affects the profitability of firms. The survey design was adopted to gather data from the hospitality industry in Bayelsa State. The correlation analysis (SPSS version 20) was used to analyze the data and from the results obtained it was concluded that there is a significant relationship between quality cost management and firm profitability. It was recommended that effective quality cost management systems be put in place by firms to enhance their profitability and that firms should channel more efforts towards prevention and appraisal activities, this will reduce the extent to which they spend on internal and external failures and lead to increased profitability

Keywords: Cost, Effect. Quality, Management, Profitability


Organizations of all kinds are increasingly concerned with achieving and demonstrating sound occupational health and safety (OH&S) performance by controlling their OH&S risks, consistent with their OH&S policy and objectives. In view of this, the study is a detailed assessment of the cost of Health and Safety performance of building contractors in South East, Nigeria and the relationship between the cost of performance and success of building projects. It provides a framework through which contractors’ health and safety actions can step down the rate of accidents on construction sites. It employed survey research method where a questionnaire was structured and randomly distributed to a total of 150 respondents comprising three construction stakeholders (clients, contractor sand professionals) across the zone. Data obtained were statistically analysed using Chi Square statistics (X2) to ascertain if statistical relationships exist. Cramer’s V test is conducted to establish the strength the relationship. The result reveals that health and safety performance of contractors affects the success of building projects in terms of delivery time, quality, cost and productive, while non-performance induces litigations/legal costs which inadvertently increase the overall building project cost. The result also portrayed the believe of the stakeholders that implementation of health and safety programmes and policies increases the overall project cost and as a result health and safety programmes are really implemented on site. The study recommends that the stakeholders especially the contractors should look beyond the immediate effect of implementing health and safety programmes and policies and focus on their long term comparative advantages which include quality reliability, profitability and timely delivery.

Keywords: Building Contractors, Cost, Health and Safety, Nigeria, Performance

Development of a Dynamic Programming Model for Optimizing Production Planning. (Review Completed - Accepted)

Production planning is the backbone of any manufacturing operation, and its main objective is to determine the quantity of products to be produced and inventory level to be carried from one period to the other, with the objective of minimizing the total costs of production and the annual inventory, while at the same time meeting the customers’ demand. A mathematical model was developed for a multi-product problem using Dynamic Programming approach and the solution procedure proposed by Wagner and Whitin was adopted. The model is very useful in solving a problem with multi-stage problem, a particular situation in which there is appreciable variation in average periodic demand and availability of raw materials among the different periods. It also stipulates the minimum quantities of the product to produce per period and the corresponding inventory levels such that total production cost is minimized over the planning periods

Keywords: Cost, Dynamic, Inventory., Minimum, Model, Production

Cell Phone Disposal and Strategic Evaluation of Electronic Waste Management in Kenya, a Case of Mobile Phone Dealers in Kisumu County (Published)

Strategic evaluation of electronic waste and cell phone disposal was conducted by the researchers in Kisumu County, Kenya. The researcher sought information from both the published and unpublished documents for the review. The study established that there is strong relationship between effective strategic evaluation management and cell phone disposal. The researchers concluded that there is need for the government to establish free shops in Kenya to bring the electronic wastes from the dumping sites to their proper disposal.

Keywords: Availability of Resources, Cost, Technology

Assessment of Cost and Returns of Cattle Marketing In Central Zone of Adamawa State, Nigeria. (Published)

The study was to assess the cost and returns in cattle marketing in central Adamawa State, Nigeria. Data for this study were collected from activities of cattle marketer for the year 2012. The data were collected using structured questionnaire. One hundred and twenty (120) Cattle marketers were administered with questionnaires. A total of Ninety questionnaires were used for analyzed. However, both descriptive (frequency, percentage and mean) and inferential statistics was used for analyzing the data generated from the study. Analysis of the structure and performance of cattle marketers was done using Gini coefficient and marketing margin analysis. The results obtained from the study revealed that, performance of cattle marketers which was analyzed using marketing margin techniques was found to be 9.09 percent. This indicates that, marketers obtained 9.09 percent of the final sales which is paid by the consumers. Also, the analysis of seller concentration of cattle marketing shows that, a Gini coefficient of 0.65 was obtained. The relatively high Gini coefficient which by the analysis tends to approach one (1) is a clear indication of inequality in earnings from the sales of the animals and high marketing concentration. The study therefore recommends that, marketers should form / strengthening their associations and cooperatives for extensive information sharing and in-leading between and among members, government at all levels should also be willing to provide information to marketers and researchers so as to help in addressing the problems associated with cattle marketing for necessary support and legislations

Keywords: Assessment, Cattle, Cost, Marketing, Returns