Contemporary Social, Political and Religious Satire under the Silent Penetration of Poverty and Class Discrimination: An Exploration on Aravind Adiga’s ‘The White Tiger’ (Published)
“The White Tiger” is a Man Booker Prize (2008) winning book is written by the great Indian-Australian writer, Aravind Adiga. This article lets us know how the class discrimination is engulfing the Post-Colonial Indian Society under the silent penetration of poverty and corruption and how the human morality is decaying under the religious and political unrests. Here, the narrator and protagonist, Balram Halwai, struggles against his lower class society from the very initial time of his life. His life undergoes with serious sufferings from economical solvency because of being in the lower Hindu cast. He senses the tortures of the elite class people towards the deprived poor. He witnessed the deaths of many dreams in a poor family. He observes it as a “Rooster Coop” that stands for the extreme poverty where the people below the social margin remain in a great danger and never rebel against the society as they have no wealth and power. He scrutinizes the huge corruptions in politics and in every class he went through. As a driver, he has had a great chance to discover the great Indian corruptions on the root levels of cities and towns. His mind always rebels against those terminations but he is to go on as to be alive in his ways of being an enlightened person. Nevertheless, he takes in a great loss of pain but what he has gained at last is nothing but dishonesty and rampancy of corruption because all his perceptions are only for earthly happiness of money. What he got after killing Mr. Ashok and stealing his money (700,000 Rs.) is really a mystery to the readers. Significantly, Aravind Adiga has tried to rectify the human society by upholding the above facts that are running on ahead.
The Challenge of Democracy and Development in Nigeria’s Niger Delta: The Case Of Delta State, 1999-2014 (Published)
This article examines the challenge of democracy and development in Nigeria’s oil-rich Niger Delta, using the example of Delta State, 1999-2014. Against the backdrop of an expansive literature on the region’s state of decay, poverty, and conspiracy between the Federal Government of Nigeria and MNOCs to deny the Niger Delta of the benefits of its God-given oil resources, with attendant insurgency, this micro study cautions against the pitfalls of sweeping generalization. Adopting the critical, evaluative method of contemporary history, built on secondary sources, this work is significant in drawing attention to the manipulation and diversion of insurgency initially directed against the local elite by an aggrieved community to achieve political relevance and primitive accumulation by the former, who failed to judiciously and transparently utilize the huge sums of money from statutory allocation and donor agencies to transform the state. The paper calls for a review of the conventional wisdom on the subject
Police checkpoint is one of the most dreaded sights by motorists in Nigeria due to the dominance of extortion over all other activities at checkpoints instead of the normal stop-and-frisk expected of a security agent thereby affecting the efficiency of the force in preventing, detecting and containing crime. Yobe state with its high number of Boko-Haram induced checkpoints is one of the states where strong reactions follow the removal of police blockades in other parts of the country. This paper attempts, using survey research technique to assess the perception of the people of Yobe state on the removal of police frisk-barricades from the roads as a means of reducing police corruption in the country. The research found out among other things; that people of Yobe state believe that the removal will tremendous effect in reducing police extortion that has direct bearing on the common man. The study recommends inter alia the review of police salary and welfare packages, introduction of technology driven frisking system and policing the police technique of fishing out corrupt personnel.
AN ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENTIAL PERFORMANCES OF THE ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRIMES COMMISSION (EFCC) ALONG LEADERSHIP REGIMES IN NIGERIA (Published)
One of the greatest enemies of human growth and societal development is corruption. More worrisome is when there is manifestly a deliberate failure to get rid of its spread and existence. This research is a survey type that assessed the perception of Nigerians on possible differential performance of EFCC along leadership regimes. This research is an extraction of a Ph.D thesis that explored both primary and secondary data. The theory of prismatic society provided a frame work for the analysis. The study reveals a differential perception on the performance of the EFCC along leadership regimes. It also shows that president Olusegun (1999-2007) is favorably higher in ranking in the fight against corruption than the YarAdua regime with Goodluck’s administration at lowest ebb of the score. The research concludes that the premise for this leadership cocksureness is the vacuum created by weak institution of governance. This vacuum provides an avenue for tendentious attitudes and despotic inclination to governance. The study recommends inter alia; a need for virile institutions of governance, political culture of discipline and leadership consciousness and conscious national agenda.
THE EFFECT OF CORRUPTION ON SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES: PERSPECTIVE FROM A DEVELOPING COUNTRY (Published)
This paper investigates the effect of corruption on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Specifically it looks at the relationship between corruption and SMEs performance including price, profit, growth, productivity, wages and employment. Researches on the effect of corruption on SMEs in developing countries are scarce. Therefore, there is a value in investigating the effect of corruption on SMEs. As a result, this paper filled a research gap in the study of SMEs.In order to achieve the purpose of the study, qualitative and quantitative research methods were employed. The qualitative research was carried out using semi-structured interviews. Alternatively, the quantitative method was conducted using questionnaires as the principal survey instrument complemented by personal interviews. The data for the study was collected using mainly 340 questionnaires. The sampling design for the survey was based on stratified random sampling. The stratification was by region and business sector.The results from this study indicated that corruption is positively related with price. As predicted, corruption is negatively associated with growth, productivity and employment. But it shows no significant statistical relationship with wages and profit. In addition, the descriptive survey analysis reveals that corruption reduced SMEs owner/managers access to finance. Another interesting finding was that a large number of the respondents perceived corruption as a practice that leads to extortion by government officials. This study contributes to knowledge by providing insights on the effect of corruption on SMEs performance in Sierra Leone. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the study is one of the few studies ever done in a developing country context.
Corruption is endemic social problem in Nigerian society; it is particularly objectionable in Nigeria Police Force. This study x-ray prevalence and consequences of corruption in Nigeria Police Force. It predominantly utilized secondary data. This study has identified that, in Nigeria, the police force has become an epitome of all multi corrupt and fraudulent schemes which constitute a stumbling block to the effective administration of justice and efficient maintenance of law and order in Nigeria and have soiled the image of the force. Thus, the study recommends fundamental restructuring, reorganization, total war against police graft to re-invent a new image for the police and professionalization through further training and re-education in the force which would hopefully launch the Nigerian Police Force on the positive side of history.
This paper reviews the historical background of corporate governance and emerging issues in the development and practice of corporate governance in Nigerian and South African firms. The paper examines the role of institutional bodies on corporate governance of listed firms, regulatory and enforcement, and institutional bodies of corporate governance in Nigeria and South Africa. Other issues also examined include role and responsibilities of corporate board and external factors that affect corporate governance such as politics, corruption, economic, and ownership structure of listed firms. We find that institutional shareholders are more active in South Africa than in Nigeria, also shareholders association in South Africa are not active compared with that of Nigeria. In addition, South Africa have a stronger institutional framework than Nigeria, this really provide an evidence to show that enforcement of corporate governance practices in South Africa seem to be better than Nigeria. Generally, we find that corruption and bribery, politics, economic and ownership structure influence effective corporate governance practice in each country
CORRUPTION IN ELECTRICITY STEALING ACCORDING TO ARTICLE 2 PARAGRAPH (1) OF LAW NUMBER 31 OF 1999 ON CORRUPTION CRIME ERADICATION (Published)
This paper entitled Corruption in Electricity Stealing was intended to answer questions on whether an electricity stealing can be qualified as a corruption crime and to the extent of which electricity stealing crimes may bring about losses in the state’s finance. This paper was prepared by a juridical-normative writing method, that is, by studying legislations contained both in the law itself and in legal literatures/books, particularly those related to stealing and corruption. The result in a juridical aspect form was then written down in a descriptive-analytical way. The conclusion of this paper was the answer to the problems abovementioned as follows: that electricity stealing can be qualified as a corruption crime and that any electricity stealing brings about losses in the state’s finance.
Controversy shrouds the role of Nigerian Legislature in national development. Though some believe that the legislature has contributed significantly to the development of the nation, many others are of the view that since from its inception as a sovereign state legislature in Nigeria has not shown a significant and genuine commitment to the social, economic and political wellbeing of the country. This work assesses the role of Nigerian legislature in national development. The work is of the view that legislature is a veritable instrument and institution for national development whose effectiveness is determined by some local variables. The descriptive-diachronic methodology was used in comprehending and interpreting the role of the legislature in national development. For Nigerian legislature to be instrument of national development, the work suggests among others the need for moral politicians.
Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess the perceptions of the players in Ghana‟s Construction industry (GCI) on the pervasiveness of conflict of interest and corruption in the industry.
Research Design: The study involved the undertaking of an extensive literature review on the subject matter. Additionally, employing the principles of a “survey approach to research”, a questionnaire was developed, which sought to primarily establish, which of the stages of the procurement process was most susceptible to corruption and acts of conflict of interest Purposive sampling was utilized and descriptive statistics and relative importance index were used to analyze the data.
Research Limitations: The use of purposive sampling limited the survey to the participants of the procurement forum.
Findings: From the study, acts of conflict of interest and corrupt practices are still pervasive in the construction industry and the tender stage, contract execution stage and final accounting and auditing stage were found to be the stages of the public procurement process that are most susceptible to the perpetuation of acts of conflict of interest and corrupt practices in Ghana.
Response to the conference theme and outcome: This study unearths the level of corrupt practices and conflicts of interest in the construction industry in Ghana.
Practical Implications: The study increases the awareness of the prevalence of conflict of interest and corrupt practices in the construction industry despite the interventions made by successive Governments to curb same.
Originality: The study explores issues of conflict of interest and corrupt practices in the Ghanaian construction procurement landscape and identified some stages in the procurement process prone to conflict of interest and corrupt practices which if given attention safeguard the already stretched public purse.
CORRUPTION AND SELF-INTEREST IN IGBO LEADERSHIP (Published)
Corruption is an ancient practice that has been traced back to pre-biblical time and made itself known in the ancient civilizations of developed and developing countries. Self-interest affect both the old and the young, man and woman. It is the problem that strata the socio-political and economic structure of any region especially in Igbo land. The aim of this paper is to empirically investigate the relationship between corruption and self-interest in Igbo leadership using SPSS and correlation test. The study also anchored on two theories: the idealistic theory and the anomie theory. The study revealed that the level of corruption and self-interest among Igbo leaders over the years has become a source of embarrassment to Igbos living outside the country and that corruption and self-interest among Igbo leaders has seriously had significant negative affect on the development and services delivery in Igbo land especially in rural areas. The implication of this study is that economy of Igbos cannot grow fast without zero tolerance in corruption and self-interest. The study recommended that the policies that will enhance economic development and reduce the level of corruption and self-interest are expected to be encouraged so that the level of economic growth can be improved in Igbo land. The study also suggests that there should be free and fair election in Igbo land and stops the issue of selection so that the issue of corruption and self-interest will reduce drastically. And that the activities or programmes of the anti-corruption agencies in Nigeria such as the Economic and Financial Crime Commission (EFCC) and the Independent Corrupt Practices and related Offences Commission (ICPC) should be strengthened.
INVESTIGATION INTO THE INFLUENCES OF GOVERNANCE FAILURE, CORRUPTION, VIOLENCE AND OTHER IMPORTANT ISSUES, IN THE CHALLENGES OF THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT OF NIGERIA (Published)
As a follow-up to an earlier paper on the socio-economic environment of Nigeria, in which a large number of challenges are highlighted for this socio-economic environment, this investigation is carried out, to find out the extent to which the issues of governance failure, corruption, violence and a number of other issues, are implicated in these challenges. The investigation reveals that the trio of governance failure, corruption and violence, are greatly implicated in the challenges. A large number of other important issues, such as deficit in values, deficit in education and deficit in appropriate attitudes, are also implicated to a lesser extent, in the challenges. The paper is concluded with a recommendation that all these issues need to be urgently attended to, if Nigeria is to attain sustainable development, within the first quarter of this century.
THE GHOST WORKER SYNDROME: A COMPLEX DIMENSSION TO PUBLIC SERVICE CORRUPTION IN KOGI STATE – NORTH CENTRAL NIGERIA. (Review Completed - Accepted)
The public sector constitutes the largest sector of the Nigerian economy. It employs the largest population of the labour force and also controls the bulk of the financial resources of the country. What this implies is that whatever adversely affects the public service has a huge multiplier effect on national development. The ghost can be a real person who knowingly or not is placed on the payroll, or a fictitious person invented by the dishonest employee. Thus, this paper attempts an x-ray the menacing ill of ghost workers, by the adoption of some basic accounting procedures to ensure internal control of public funds. This is because the public sector is the most venerable sector to employee frauds. The research findings show that public sector management in Kogi State has not lived up to expectation especially with regards to human resource management, good internal control system and good accounting procedure to reduce the act of ghost workers, among others. The study recommends the formulation of good human resource and recruitment policy, attractive pay package and internal control/audit department.
INVESTIGATION INTO THE INFLUENCES OF THE ISSUES OF GOVERNANCE FAILURE, CORRUPTION AND VIOLENCE, ON THE CHALLENGES OF THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT OF NIGERIA (Review Completed - Accepted)
As a follow-up to an earlier paper on the natural environment of Nigeria, in which a large number of challenges are highlighted for this natural environment, this investigation is conducted, to find out the extent to which issues of governance failure, corruption and violence, are implicated in these challenges. The investigation reveals that the three important issues are implicated in the challenges to a great extent. A large number of other issues are also implicated, to a relatively smaller extent. Prominent among these issues are those of ineffective laws, poor implementation of the laws, ignorance among the people, lack of environmental education and appropriate environmental ethics. Other issues that are also implicated include the culture of impunity among the people, inadequate political will by people in government, inadequate monitoring and surveillance of this natural environment. The paper recommends an aggressive mission to reform governance in Nigeria and the need to curb corruption and violence, which are also taking their toll on the natural environment of the country
THE SOCIO-POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS OF SOME OF THE EPISODES IN CHINUA ACHEBE’S NOVEL “A MAN OF THE PEOPLE (Review Completed - Accepted)
The purpose of this Article is bring to the fore how Chinua Achebe has used A Man of the people to condemn the societal belief that politics is the best avenue for making money, which often lead people into siphoning money from the government purse unnecessarily when they finally have access to the mantle of power. Achebe has used different episodes in A Man of the People to show Clearly African people`s thinking about the political terrain, seeing it as an avenue to enrich themselves, with the Society adoring Corrupt politicians abnormally. This research work aims at exploring the implications of Achebe`s focus in putting in place this novel.
WHISTLEBLOWER REWARD AND SYSTEMS IMPLEMENTATION EFFECTS ON WHISTLEBLOWING IN ORGANISATIONS (Published)
Whistleblowing has become a major concern globally following tremendous organisational misconduct that had befallen huge organisations and has ultimately led to the collapse of some organisations, with its trickling down effects translating into global economic meltdown. Several countries have adopted and signed up to whistleblower acts including Ghana as a way of addressing this challenge of corruption and fraud, for which some organisations have implemented whistleblowing systems and provided reward systems to encourage whistleblowing. The study employs fisher’s exact test to analyse the effect of whistleblowing implementation systems in organisations in Ghana and its associated reward systems effects on whistleblowing. It observes that, these have not been as effective as desired, particularly as whistleblowing implemented systems have minimal or no effect and reward systems intended to motivate whistleblowing fails to motivate its essence such that, the presence of these systems have not impacted on organisational productivity
Whistleblower Reward and Systems Implementation Effects on Whistleblowing in Organisations (Review Completed - Accepted)
Whistleblowing has become a major concern globally following tremendous organisational misconduct that had befallen huge organisations and has ultimately led to the collapse of some organisations, with its trickling down effects translating into global economic meltdown. Several countries have adopted and signed up to whistleblower acts including Ghana as a way of addressing this challenge of corruption and fraud, for which some organisations have implemented whistleblowing systems and provided reward systems to encourage whistleblowing. The study employs fisher’s exact test to analyse the effect of whistleblowing implementation systems in organisations in Ghana and its associated reward systems effects on whistleblowing. It observes that, these have not been as effective as desired, particularly as whistleblowing implemented systems have minimal or no effect and reward systems intended to motivate whistleblowing fails to motivate its essence such that, the presence of these systems have not impacted on organisational productivity.
That there is a relationship between literature and a society, which produces it, is no longer news. However, the extent of the perceived interconnectivity between literature and its milieu remains a serious argument among literary theorists, historians and other practitioners of creative arts generally. In an attempt to contribute to the debate on the meeting point between literature and the environment which paves the way for its creation and production, we examine SembГЁne OusmaneвЂ™s Guelwaar with the view that Art is not only for its own sake and purpose but also for the development of the society, which it claims it is a product of. This paper therefore is premised on the pragmatic approach which stresses that literature performs certain functions. The paper concludes that literature is a potential tool for sustainable developments in various human societies.