Tag Archives: Corruption

Economic gains of whistle-blowing policy in Nigeria: prospects and challenges (Published)

It is no doubt that corruption is a global plague ravaging world’s economy. Corruption is depleting the scarce economic resources of developed and developing nations though, at varying intensities.  Corruption has also been described as the black hole which must be thoroughly covered. In a bid to fighting corruption in the world, the whistle blowing mechanism was adopted by several countries including the USA, UK, South Africa and Nigeria. To complement the efforts of ICPC and EFCC, the whistle-blowing machinery was adopted in Nigeria by the Muhammadu Buhari/Osinbajo administration in 2016. This paper examined the economic gains, prospects and challenges of the whistle blowing policy in Nigeria. The Role and Framing Theories were adopted in the study to explain the question of morality and persuasiveness through specific communication strategies to the citizens. The methodology used in the study was qualitative deductions from secondary data. The study discovered that the policy has attracted 5,000 tips which led to recovery of several billions of naira. Also discovered, was that there was no law protecting whistle-blowers from victimizations and recriminations. The paper therefore recommends that, the long overdue whistle-blower protection bill of 2011 should be passed into law as an emergency law amongst others

Keywords: Challenges, Corruption, Nigeria, Prospects, Whistle-Blowing, economic gain

Nepotism, Cronyism and Prebendalism: An Exploration of the Mores that reinforce Corruption in Nigeria’s Political System. (Published)

The perception that Nigeria is a corrupt country has persisted for decades in spite of measures taken by successive administrations to mitigate it. This study explores the factors that encourage corruption in the Political System. It relies on the explanatory variables of Prebendal Theory. Employing survey research design, data were generated through interviews and documents and analyzed using content analysis. The central argument in the study is that, there are Mores and Belief Systems, rooted in Nigerian culture that encourages corruption. This is encapsulated in a Nigerian proverb: “One, whose father is in heaven, cannot be destined for hell”. The proverb purports that a public office holder must use the appurtenances of his office to benefit his cronies and relatives. The study recommends a cultural and moral reorientation to correct the erroneous impression that public office is a platform for dispensing prebends to relatives and cronies.

Keywords: Corruption, cronyism, mores., nepotism, prebendalism

Lobbying and Corruption: A Critical Analysis (Published)

This work critically analyses the concept of lobbying and corruption both of which are means of influencing the government. Specifically, the study looks closely at the distinction between lobbying and corruption with a view to recommending one as a better means of influencing and participating in government. Adopting the structural functional approach as a theoretical framework, the work basically discovers that while lobbying is legal and a profession, corruption on the other hand, is illegal and bereft of any requirement for expertise for those who indulge in it. The structural functionalist theory was adopted because it clearly brings out those governmental structures –the legislature and the executive – responsible for the provision of dividends of democracy and security to the electorates. The work stresses the need for the citizenry to imbibe the “virtues” of lobbying so as to help the legislators and other government officials realise the goal of government which is the extension of the good life to the majority of the citizenry. The paper finally recommends the legalisation of lobbying in Nigeria to enable the citizenry shun political apathy in order to team up with the government to achieve the goal of government as this demands collective responsibility.

Keywords: Bribery, Corruption, Nigeria, lobbying, lobbying bill

Adult Education and Corruption Free Society: Nigeria Perspective (Published)

Corruption can be seen as an illegal, immoral or dishonest behaviour. Corruption in Nigeria has reached a very high degree of prevalence. The endemic state of corruption in Nigeria therefore warrants concrete action by all stakeholders in the fight against it. The purpose of the study is to evolve a permanent mechanism, through which corruption could be minimized or completely wiped out in the society. The study was aimed at creating an awareness of the evils of corruption in Nigeria. Another important purpose of the study is to discuss the methods that could be used to reduce corruption through adult education. The paper therefore examines the concept of corruption and how it is carried out in the Nigerian society. It looked at the different forms of corruption in the society and went ahead to discuss the effects of corruption as it affects both individuals and the society. The paper also focuses on the causes of corruption and the roles of adult education in minimizing corruption in Nigeria. Adult education in this paper, is regarded as all forms of education provided for adults and is obtained through formal, informal and non-formal situations.

Keywords: Adult Education, Corruption, Nigeria perspective, free society

The Effectiveness of the Whistle Blowing Policy in Combating Corruption in the Nigerian Public Sector (Published)

This study investigated the effectiveness of the WBW Policy in combating corruption in the Nigerian public sector. The study was carried out in Delta, Edo, Enugu, and Anambra States respectively. Data were obtained through structured questionnaire. Survey design was employed in the study. A total of one hundred and two (102) auditors and 162 accountants were sampled in the public sector. Judgmental Sampling Technique (JST) was employed in selecting the 264 respondents in the four states’ public organisations. Descriptive statistical techniques such as, charts, mean, standard deviation, tables, and percentages response analysis were used in analyzing the data. Cronbach alpha coefficient was used to test for reliability of the research instrument and the result was (0.7110). The Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMCC) was employed in testing the hypothesis. SPSS 23.0 was used. The results revealed that the WBW Policy is effective combating corruption in the public sector of Nigeria. The study hereby concluded that the WBW Policy have been effective in combating corruption in the public sector.  It was recommended that the state and local government should also initiate suitable WBW programme, continuous advert on WBW should be on the media, adequate protection of whistle blower should be guaranteed, and the rewards for the whistle blowers should be increased.

Keywords: Corruption, Effectiveness, Nigerian, Public Sector, Whistle-Blowing, combating

The Effect of Corruption on the Educational System in Nigeria (Published)

Corruption universally plagues societies and its impact has disastrous effects on national development. It has been established by scholars that no sector is Immune from the fangs of corruption. Corruption however varies; across societies and countries but globally its impact on the educational sector undermines the national advancement of any country. In the Nigerian context, corruption has deep roots in the fabrics of the society, impacting virtually every aspect of the Nigerian economy. Scholars have highlighted the impeding impact on the technological, political, moral development of the country. In the educational sector, it causes infrastructural insufficiencies which leads to poor educational delivery and inaccessibility to education while impacting the empowerment of citizens within the society. This has left the citizens feeling frustrated, disgruntled and disenchanted and possibly inducing the rise in insurgency, kidnapping and militancy in the country. As such, the need to mitigate and tackle the growing trend of corruption in the educational sector because of impact on manpower and national development. The research makes a number of recommendations which include that; Accountability and transparency should be sensitized and imposed on every aspect of the Nigerian society in such a way those public officer holders, contractors, tutors and stakeholders view transparency and accountability as key aspects of carrying out projects and serving the people. Sensitization on the dangerous impact of corruption on education should be carried out by non-governmental agencies and religious bodies. An effective and reliable financial management system should be established to control and monitor the use of educational resources and supervision of programmes and projects embarked in the educational sector to mention but a few.

Keywords: Corruption, Education, educational development

Evaluation of Corruption and Conflict in Nigerian Oil Industry: Imperative for Sustainable Development (Published)

Not only can corruption keep African states in cycles of violence by funding armed groups and criminal networks, it can also prevent the development of effective institutions of governance. When money and resources are diverted by corrupt African officials to private accounts and businesses instead of being channeled to inclusive citizen’s needs, the clock turns back on social and economic development. This, in turn, can create further instability. In these ways, corruption, conflict and sustainable development are linked. Since its return to civil rule in May 1999, the country, especially the oil producing Niger Delta region, has drifted from one violent conflict to another, often with devastating consequences on human life and socio-economic development. Most analysts blame this violence on the many injustices perpetrated by the central authorities (especially the inadequacies of the current revenue sharing formula that denies oil bearing states their dues). The paper examines the relationship between corruption in oil sector, conflict and sustainable development and was anchored on resource curse theory. This study recommends amongst others that the award of oil block, contract, and licensing and production right should follow due process and transparent process. Also that the awarding of oil block to individuals should be discourage rather they should be awarded to corporate entities with wide spread ownership.

Keywords: Conflict, Corruption, Development, Violence, oil industry

Evaluation of Corruption and Conflict in Nigerian Oil Industry: Imperative for Sustainable Development (Published)

Not only can corruption keep African states in cycles of violence by funding armed groups and criminal networks, it can also prevent the development of effective institutions of governance. When money and resources are diverted by corrupt African officials to private accounts and businesses instead of being channeled to inclusive citizen’s needs, the clock turns back on social and economic development. This, in turn, can create further instability. In these ways, corruption, conflict and sustainable development are linked. Since its return to civil rule in May 1999, the country, especially the oil producing Niger Delta region, has drifted from one violent conflict to another, often with devastating consequences on human life and socio-economic development. Most analysts blame this violence on the many injustices perpetrated by the central authorities (especially the inadequacies of the current revenue sharing formula that denies oil bearing states their dues). The paper examines the relationship between corruption in oil sector, conflict and sustainable development and was anchored on resource curse theory. This study recommends amongst others that the award of oil block, contract, and licensing and production right should follow due process and transparent process. Also that the awarding of oil block to individuals should be discourage rather they should be awarded to corporate entities with wide spread ownership.

Keywords: Conflict, Corruption, Development, Violence, oil industry

Under The Spell of Amazon: Exploring the Structures of Race and Class in John Updike’s Novel Brazil (Published)

This paper is an attempt to examine how John Updike (1932-2009) a prominent American novelist, constructs in Brazil (1994) scenarios that reveal to his readers, moment by moment, the rich complexity of Brazilian race relations. I also seek to point out how Updike sets forth the complicated racial issues in modern-day Brazil through the hardships his two main characters, Tristão and Isabel, undergo. In a way, Updike seeks to identify parallel selves in individuals of other nations; individuals whom one would typically categorize as “Others”. The paper also discusses how Updike attempts to de-emphasize racial differences and suggests that humans are all connected to one another as mixed combinations of color. I argue that in a society where racial identities are not clearly definable and where miscegenation is commonplace, interracial unions are more easily accepted. Updike, however, sees that behind this admixture there is a bias linked to skin color and social class. Meanwhile, I argue that Updike’s text is stronger in his sense of place than his sense of people. In other words, though Updike poses the problems of race and identity, he falls short of that, because the main ideas of the novel—the questions of race and class—are never deeply explored or illuminated.

Keywords: Brazil, Classism, Corruption, Identity, Miscegenation, Racism, Updike

Re – examining the Fight against Public Sector Corruption in Nigeria: Has the Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC) lived up to its billing? (Published)

Issues of corruption have continued to feature prominently in the management of national affairs globally, and particularly in transitional States. Public governance in Nigeria has been serially accused with verifiable proofs of unbridled corruption, and is therefore a huge contributor to Nigeria’s embarrassing corruption perception on the Global Corruption Index. The ICPC as an institutional response to the ugly trend, is intended at curbing the incidence, severity, and depth of corruption in Nigeria public service. It is however worrisome, that public sector corruption is yet to witness a significant downward review, as bizarre incidences of public sector corruption continues to emerge even with the presence of ICPC. This paper therefore leverages on a Desk Study, hinged on Documentary Analysis, to interrogate how effective the ICPC has been, in the fight against Public Sector corruption in Nigeria, and to also ascertain, some of the challenges that militate against its operations. The findings show among others, that although the ICPC made some contributions to the fight against corruption, it is generally adjudged quite weak and ineffective, for reasons that range from wide political interferences/lack of autonomy, absence of the requisite political will, and poor funding. It is recommended among others, that the ICPC should be redesigned to make it much more autonomous and insulated from the likelihood of detrimental political influences as much as possible.

Keywords: Corruption, Effectiveness, Independent, Public Sector, institutionalization

Examination Malpractices and Corruption among Students at Cross River University of Technology, Calabar, Nigeria (Published)

Examination malpractices have become a recurrent decimal in higher institutions in Nigeria. Misconducts in examinations tend to have a connection with corrupt practices involving students in these institutions as it provides opportunities for them to get an education by fraudulent means. That questions the validity and credibility of the grades they earn in academics and reflects in their overall performances in the labour market. Based on the Bandura’s social cognitive learning theory, an ex-post facto was conducted to inquire about the correlation between examination malpractices and corruption among students in Cross River University of Technology (CRUTECH), Calabar, Nigeria. Three research questions and null hypotheses were developed for the study. 800 participants were randomly recruited from the population within the research site. Data was analyzed via Pearson product moment correlation coefficient statistic. The findings indicated that cheating, gratification and bribery have significant relationships with corruption among students at CRUTECH. Simply put, these are among the practices students employed to commit examination fraud. It is recommended that key stakeholders, inter alia, need to develop holistic and workable methods to curb the menace in the interest of national development.

Keywords: : examination malpractice, Corruption, Higher Institutions, Students

Anti-Corruption War under President Muhammadu Buhari in Nigeria: The Arsenal, Casualties, Victories and Corruption Perception Appraisal (Published)

This paper assessed and appraised the status and/or level of victories of President Muhammadu Buhari government’s anti-corruption war in Nigeria. In doing so, the paper examined the various anti-corruption policies, legal and regulatory frameworks that have been put in place by this present administration to fight against corruption scourge in Nigeria. The paper observed that Nigeria, no doubt, has adopted some of the provisions of the international conventions against corruption. However, Nigeria has, regrettably and consistently, remained on the negative corruption perception index, regionally and internationally. Nevertheless, the paper found that the present administration under President Buhari, has adopted and/or introduced home-grown laudable anti-corruption policies and legal frameworks. These include Treasury Single Account, Whistle-blowing, Code of Conduct Bureau and its Tribunal, and Nigerian Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative and Governance Code among others, to fight against corruption. This effort has brought about a modicum of victories in certain aspects of the corruption perception index. Also, the paper perused the perceptions of Nigerians based on write-ups and commentaries about some corruption casualties and found that opinions of Nigerians are tendentiously divided between and among ethnics, religious and political party lines. Therefore, the paper recommends among other things, that President Buhari, where the bulk stops at his table and his cabinet, should make the rule of law and international best practices their watchword and benchmark at fighting against corruption. Also, all policies formulation and enforcement in the direction of fight against corruption should be non-selective, non-ethnic and/or political party affinities or persuasion.

Keywords: Anti-corruption, Casualties, Corruption, Non-selective, Regulatory Framework

Corruption and Democratic Governance in Nigeria: The Nexus (Published)

This study was aimed at examining corruption and democratic governance in Nigeria. One of the greatest threats to socio-economic and political development of any nation is corruption.   Democratic governance on the other hand is based on the will of the people and it is generally agreed that it is the best form of governance suited for allowing people to live in dignity and freedom, a point that was articulated in the Millennium Declaration by the international community. With huge resource expansion, unparalleled and unprecedented corrupt practices, it is unthinkable to expect democracy to thrive and derive dividend therein. Not only are things very stressful and difficult but the design and reality of democratic governance appears more of a mirage. All these hinge on either ethics or morality. The choice is either democracy or corruption as they are diametrically opposed to each other. This unenviable status continues to assert negatively on the State and the growth of democracy despite the several strategies put in place by past and previous regimes to combat the scourge. The study adopts secondary sources of data collection for overall understanding of the subject matter. Literatures were gathered from works of scholars in the area of investigations under review. The paper argues that for corruption to be curtailed in Nigeria, the constitutional provisions which fosters constitutionalism, rule of law should be effectively enforced. The paper sums up with conclusions and other vital policy recommendations for effective democratic governance in Nigeria.

Keywords: Corruption, Democracy, Democratic governance

A Critical Exposition of the Nature and Manifestations of Corruption in Ben Jonson’s Volpone (Published)

Corruption is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon which characterize the global economy and has different manifestations. To respond to this global challenge, a multidisciplinary approach is crucial in enforcement, investigation and prevention and it is a proven fact that public awareness/education is very critical in prevention. The use of drama to raise awareness and consciousness is very ancient and evident in all types of drama-traditional and modern. This study examines the relationship between drama and public awareness. It reviews the role dramatists have played in the fight against corruption. The nature, types and punishment for corruption as manifested in Ben Jonson’s Volpone is also evaluated. It is established that drama has played and still has a key role to play in the prevention of corruption.

Keywords: Ben Jonson, Corruption, Drama, Volpone

Whistle Blowing Policy as a Mechanism for Energizing the ‘War against Corruption’ in Nigeria (Published)

Corruption in Nigeria, just like in many other countries in the world, is an existential problem. Apart from the billions of dollars lost annually to corruption in the public and private sectors, almost all the social, political, ethno-cultural and religious conflicts in Nigeria can be traced to corruption in one way or another. As a tool for fighting corruption, whistle blowing has proven to be effective in many parts of the world. Within the first six months, the Whistle Blowing Policy in Nigeria, officially launched by the Federal Ministry of Finance on December 22, 2016, attracted thousands of tips, some of which led to opening of over 3,000 investigations and the recovery of several billions of naira. However, while the Minister of Information of the Buhari administration, Alhaji Lai Mohammed, applauded the gains from the policy in different forums as evident of the progress being made in the ‘war against corruption’, controversy has continued to trail the conceptual, ethical and implementation frameworks of the policy so far. This paper is an attempt to examine the theoretical foundations of the policy as well as the current application of its provisions against the ultimate objective of fighting corruption in Nigeria. The Ethical Theory of Whistle Blowing, Universal Dignity Theory of Whistle Blowing and Framing Theory were used to structure the postulations of the study. The paper argues that the policy, which is still awaiting the backing of an enabling law at the time of this study, may need to be further tweaked to speak to the issues of ethics, protection of whistle blowers and impactful communication strategies, in order to serve as a potent energizer to the ‘war against corruption’ in Nigeria.

Keywords: Communication Strategies, Corruption, Ethics, Framing, Whistle Blower Protection, Whistle-Blowing

Governance, Corruption and the Democratic Order in Africa: The Case of Nigeria (Published)

The triumph of the democratic order in Africa will depend to a large extent on the capacity of stakeholders to tackle the ravages of corruption. Across the continent, the quest for economic and political development had been hampered by corruption on the part of the leaders and followers, thus making the democratic enterprise appear as condemned to being subverted, as it turns out, from within. The scourge appears intractable due to its prevalence, thus, encumbering most States in the continent. For decades, Nigeria’s has been performing below average in the transparency international index of corruption. At some point, Nigeria was oscillating between the first and second most corrupt nation in the world. This unenviable status continues to assert negatively on the State and the growth of democracy despite the several strategies put in place by past and previous regimes to combat the scourge. This paper therefore considers the hindrances of corruption to the development of the democratic order and explores the imperative of good governance in remedying the malaise.

Keywords: Corruption, Democracy, Elections, Good Governance, Leadership

Parenting Styles as Correlates of Students’ Attitude towards Examination Malpractices in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State: Implications for Counselling (Published)

Parenting styles refers to practices adopted by parents in rearing their children. A good parenting style is needed to develop in a child interpersonal relationship, capacity to take initiatives, self-reliance, motivation and to conform to societal acceptable code of conduct. Bad parenting style is counterproductive and may as well get children involved in antisocial behaviours including examination malpractices. This work is a correlational study intended to determine the relationship between parenting styles and students’ attitude towards examination malpractices. Three research questions and three hypotheses were designed to guide the study. The instruments for data collection were Students’ Attitude to Examination Malpractices Scale and Parenting Style Scale. These instruments were vetted by three experts in Educational Psychology. The reliability coefficient of Attitude to Examination Malpractices Scale measured through test-retest method and Pearson product moment correlation technique was 0.86. The reliability indices of sections of Parenting Style Scale established through Cronbach Alpha technique were 0.68, 0.81, 0.73 and 0.84 for sections A, B, C and D respectively. It was found that though, majority of the students showed negative attitude towards examination malpractices, a sizeable percentage of them showed positive attitude towards the malaise. Authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting styles had a significant joint relationship with students’ attitude towards examination malpractices. Authoritative, authoritarian and permissive parenting styles each had individual negative relationship with students’ attitude towards examination malpractices while neglectful parenting style had a positive relationship with students’ attitude towards examination malpractices. Based on these findings, it is imperative for the counsellors to assist prospective couples through premarital counselling or marital counselling to adopt good parenting styles especially authoritative parenting style in nurturing their children. Appreciable number of counsellors should be employed by the government of Rivers State and sent to secondary schools to help maladjusted students acquire good value re-orientation that will enable them distinguish what is good from what is bad with a view to avoiding negative tendencies including examination malpractices

Keywords: Authoritarian, Authoritative, Corruption, Examination, Fraud, Test, antisocial behaviour, cheating, malpractices, neglectful parenting styles, permissive

Parenting Styles as Correlates of Students’ Attitude towards Examination Malpractices in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State: Implications for Counselling (Published)

Parenting styles refers to practices adopted by parents in rearing their children. A good parenting style is needed to develop in a child interpersonal relationship, capacity to take initiatives, self-reliance, motivation and to conform to societal acceptable code of conduct. Bad parenting style is counterproductive and may as well get children involved in antisocial behaviours including examination malpractices. This work is a correlational study intended to determine the relationship between parenting styles and students’ attitude towards examination malpractices. Three research questions and three hypotheses were designed to guide the study. The instruments for data collection were Students’ Attitude to Examination Malpractices Scale and Parenting Style Scale. These instruments were vetted by three experts in Educational Psychology. The reliability coefficient of Attitude to Examination Malpractices Scale measured through test-retest method and Pearson product moment correlation technique was 0.86. The reliability indices of sections of Parenting Style Scale established through Cronbach Alpha technique were 0.68, 0.81, 0.73 and 0.84 for sections A, B, C and D respectively. It was found that though, majority of the students showed negative attitude towards examination malpractices, a sizeable percentage of them showed positive attitude towards the malaise. Authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting styles had a significant joint relationship with students’ attitude towards examination malpractices. Authoritative, authoritarian and permissive parenting styles each had individual negative relationship with students’ attitude towards examination malpractices while neglectful parenting style had a positive relationship with students’ attitude towards examination malpractices. Based on these findings, it is imperative for the counsellors to assist prospective couples through premarital counselling or marital counselling to adopt good parenting styles especially authoritative parenting style in nurturing their children. Appreciable number of counsellors should be employed by the government of Rivers State and sent to secondary schools to help maladjusted students acquire good value re-orientation that will enable them distinguish what is good from what is bad with a view to avoiding negative tendencies including examination malpractices.  

Keywords: Authoritarian, Authoritative, Corruption, Examination, Fraud, Test, antisocial behaviour, cheating, malpractices, neglectful parenting styles, permissive

Corruption in the Education Industry in Nigeria: Implications for National Development (Published)

This paper sees corruption generally as a condemnable behaviour and particularly identifies corruption in the education industry as a practice that has multiple capabilities for undermining the national development of Nigeria. Corruption in the education industry terribly creates infrastructural deficits that result in poor instructional delivery and making many people not to have access to education which in addition to being a fundamental human right is a spring board for their empowerment and emancipation infrastructural deficits and inability of a people to have access to education systematically renders useless the ability of the people to engineer  national development as generations of citizens are left frustrated, disgruntled and disenchanted in addition to manifesting terrible immorality in the forms of militancy and insurgency. Embrace of militancy and insurgency as a result of lack of access and infrastructure owe their sources to corruption, which disastrously has multiplier effects on the economy and the national development of the Nigerian state: potential human beings who ideally are great assets for the development of Nigeria are lost to actions/activities that are not investor and investment friendly. The paper recommends among other things the teaching of skills that can promote greater transparency and accountability in managing issues in education, stronger and implementable in managing issues in education, stronger and implementable social justice measures for the citizens to developing curricular and pedagogical measures for sensitizing citizens to rise up to kill corruption in Nigeria.

Keywords: Accountability, Corruption, Curriculum, Education, Innovation, National Development, Nigeria, Pedagogy, Transparency

Police Corruption and the State: Prevalence and Consequences (Published)

Corruption is endemic social problem in Nigerian society; it is particularly objectionable in Nigeria Police Force. This study x-ray prevalence and consequences of corruption in Nigeria Police Force. It predominantly utilized secondary data. This study has identified that, in Nigeria, the police force has become an epitome of all multi corrupt and fraudulent schemes which constitute a stumbling block to the effective administration of justice and efficient maintenance of law and order in Nigeria and have soiled the image of the force. Thus, the study recommends fundamental restructuring, reorganization, total war against police graft to re-invent a new image for the police and professionalization through further training and re-education in the force which would hopefully launch the Nigerian Police Force on the positive side of history.

 

Keywords: Corruption, Justice, Law enforcement, Nigeria Police Force, Police, Security, Social problem