Tag Archives: Correlation

Test of Significance of Correlation Coefficient in Science and Educational Research (Published)

This study demonstrated and compared the use of t-distribution, z-transformation and the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) methods in testing the significance of the correlation coefficients. The study utilized data extracted from Eze (2019). The findings revealed that the significance of the correlation coefficient by the Fisher z-transformation and t-distribution methods were not at variance with that of SPSS. Results also showed that the SPSS approach appears to be the best method since it saves time, reveals the correlation coefficient and p-value for decision making. Results further showed that the t-distribution can be used for both large and small sample sizes since it approximates the z-distribution as the data tends to infinity. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended among others that the SPSS approach should be adopted by researchers and data analysts for testing the significance of correlation coefficients because it is not only robust, but it is easier, saves time and energy; and users of SPSS in computing correlation should not go further to convert the derived correlation coefficient using either the t-distribution or the z-transformation to test a hypothesis to minimize the risk of computational errors, wrong decisions, time wastage and to avoid unnecessary repetition

Keywords: Correlation, Pearson, Relationship, Significance, Spearman

Correlation between Employees’ Job Performance and Management Leadership Style in Tertiary Institutions in Lagos State (Published)

The study investigates the correlation between employees’ job performance and management leadership styles in tertiary institutions in Lagos state. Which comprises of university of lagos state, Akoka (UNILAG), Lagos state university, Ojo (LASU), Yaba college of Technology (YABATECH) and Adeniran Ogunsanya college of Education, Otto-Ijanikin (AOCEOD). The research design adopted is descriptive research design and was guided by four research questions and four research hypotheses. The population for the study comprised of all academic and non-academic staff in tertiary institutions owned and financed by both state and federal government in four tertiary institutions out of six (6) of both state and federal public tertiary institutions in Lagos state through purposive sampling technologies Fifty (50) academic and Fifty (50) non-academic staffs were selected through simple random sampling techniques from each of the four (4) tertiary institutions chosen for the study. In one hundred (100) respondents from each tertiary institution with the grand total of four hundred (400) respondents. The research instrument was structured questionnaire tagged “Questionnaire on Employees’ Job Performance and Management Leadership Style” (QEJPMLS) with the twenty (20) items. The data collected were analyzed using percentage and the pearson product moment correlation co-efficient test the significant correlation of the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significant. The findings of the study revealed that there is a correlation between employees job performance and autocratic leadership style at (R-cal value 0.097, R-table value 0.81, DF=4, level of sig. =0.05). And there is a correlation between employees’ job performance and democratic leadership style at (R-cal value 0.96, R-table value 0.81, level of Sig. = 0.05). Also, there is a correlation between employees’ style at (R-cal value 0.96, R-table value 0.81, level of Sig. = 0.05). Based on the findings of the study, recommendation were given. It was concluded that, autocratic democratic and laissez-faire management leadership style have an impact on the employees’ job performance in tertiary institutions in Lagos State.

Keywords: Correlation, Employees, Institutions, Leadership Style, Management, Performance

Estimating the relationship between GDP and Freight Transport Volumes in ECOWAS Nations (Published)

This paper shows the effect of changes in GDP of ECOWAS countries on the growth of their freight transport volumes. The study is based on cross-sectional data from ECOWAS countries from 2000 to 2013 from the ECOWAS Commission. The study revealed a strong correlation between GDP and the volume of freight in ECOWAS countries. It also showed that the development of short sea shipping model depends considerably on growth in GDP and increase in seaport corridors of the ECOWAS sub-region. It is recommended that there should be sub-regional policy frameworks that benchmark best practices from other sub-regional success stories.

Keywords: Correlation, Freight, GDP and ECOWAS, Short-sea, Transport, shipping

Correlation between Communication and Assertive Behavior with Work Discipline at Perusahaan Daerah Pasar Jaya Jakarta (Published)

Some factors that influence work discipline are the effectiveness of superior-subordinate communication and assertiveness. High communication effectiveness depends on the expertise of superiors to communicate information to subordinates. Assertiveness also depends on the employee himself. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a relationship between the effectiveness of superior-subordinate communication and assertiveness with work discipline among PD.Pasar Jaya head office employees, Jakarta. Work discipline is an attitude and behavior that intends to obey all company regulations based on self-awareness to adjust to company regulations (A.F Helmi, 1996: 34). Assertiveness is assertiveness can be understood as an individual’s right to determine his own behavior, thoughts and emotions and the responsibilities and consequences that Rakos takes (1991: 27). The effectiveness of superior-subordinate communication is an effective communication because the stimuli delivered and intended by superiors, are closely related to the stimuli that are captured and understood by subordinates (Tubbs & Moss, 2005: 22). The hypothesis in this study is Ha (1): “There is a relationship between the effectiveness of subordinate superiors communication with work discipline among PD.Pasar Jaya head office employees, Jakarta”. Ha (2): “There is an assertiveness relationship with work discipline among PD.Pasar Jaya head office employees, Jakarta”. Ha (3): “There is a relationship between the effectiveness of superior – subordinate communication and assertiveness with work discipline among PD Pasar Jaya head office employees, Jakarta”.The population in this study amounted to 170 people, the number of samples was 95 people using simple random sampling method. The scale of work discipline was 48 items, the effectiveness of superior-subordinate communication was 40 items and the assertiveness was 52 items. From the results of trials for the scale of work discipline obtained 37 valid items with reliability 0.918 which means very reliable, the effectiveness scale of superior-subordinate communication items 35 with a reliability of 0.955 which means highly reliable, and on a valid item assertiveness scale 47 with a reliability of 0.966 which means very reliable. Based on the analysis of the first hypothesis data bivariate correlation coefficient (r) of 0.612 P <0.05, then Ha (1) is accepted so that there is a relationship between the effectiveness of superior-subordinate communication with work discipline, the second hypothesis 0.493 P <0.05, then Ha ( 2) accepted so that there is a relationship between assertiveness and work discipline. By using the multivariate technique multiple correlation coefficient (R) of 0.644 P <0.05, Ha (3) is accepted so that there is a significant relationship between the effectiveness of subordinate superiors’ communication and assertiveness with work discipline at PD headquarters employees. Pasar Jaya Jakarta. Based on the results of data analysis, it can be concluded that there is a correlation between the effectiveness of superior-subordinate communication and assertiveness with work discipline among PD.Pasar Jaya head office employees, Jakarta. Based on categorization, the effectiveness of superior-subordinate communication and sufficient assertiveness can affect work discipline.

Keywords: Correlation, assertive behavior, communication, pasar jaya jakarta, work discipline perusahaan daerah

Bubble Point Pressure Correlation for Deep Offshore Region of Nigeria (Published)

Producing oil from deep offshore fields poses serious risk especially due to peculiar pressure and temperature regimes characterizing the fields. These variables affects the bubble point of the produced hydrocarbon in such fields. The significance of Bubble point pressure and gas solubility has led researchers to continually develop correlations to accurately predict these reservoir oil properties. In this work, measured bubble point pressure is first evaluated and a new correlation is established to estimate crude oil bubble point pressure for deep offshore region of West Africa. Nonlinear Multiple Regression analysis was utilized. The correlation applies to API crude oils ranging from 38 to 56. Comparison with other published ones of this new correlation indicates that it is much more precise than the others. The developed correlation’s Average Absolute Percent Error (percentage) is 4.8 percent. The result is indicative of an agreement between the measured and estimated data.

Keywords: - bubble point, Correlation, Nigeria, Pressure, deep offshore

Maximization of Systematic Variance in Research Design (Published)

The main focus of a research design, whether in pure or applied sciences, is the study of variances in the collected data. Technically, the systematic variance is maximized, the error variance is minimized and the effects of extraneous variables are controlled. In the pure sciences, the maximization of the systematic or desirable variance is done by a good spread in the level of the factors in the study by pulling them apart. In behavioral sciences it is quite easy when the factor(s) are categorical or inanimate. The levels of the factor(s) are deliberately pulled apart. It is a problem when the factor is continuous. Several methods have been advocated. In this study, five of such methods are compared- the use of sample mean and standard deviation, theoretical mean and standard deviation, the correlation coefficients from the transposition of Person by Item Matrix, factor score and factor analysis methods. Two validated instruments designed to measure students attitude towards mathematics and tendency to cheat in examinations, were administered on a sample of 100 students of Cross River University of Technology, Calabar, Nigeria. The students’ scores were grouped on basis of their attitude towards Mathematics, using the five methods. One-way ANOVA was carried out with the categorized Mathematics Attitude score as factor and their tendency to cheat in examinations as the dependent variable. The proportions, of the total variance, in the dependent variable, accounted for, in each of the five methods, were compared using the Fishers’ Z-test, for all possible pairs of the explained variances. The results showed that four out of the ten paired comparisons were significant, with grouping using sample mean and standard deviation, accounting for the total variance highest. The grouping base on sample mean and standard deviation is recommended and the implications for behavioral research design discussed.

Keywords: Correlation, Factor analysis, factor loadings, factor scores, person by item matrix, systematic variance, transposed matrix

L2 Performance in English and GPA: A Correlation Study (Published)

The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate the relationship between various possible components of L2 skill GPA.  In theoretical terms, the objective of the study was on examining the explanatory power of the g factor of general intelligence versus multiple intelligences theory through a correlation of five aspects of L2 competence with GPA among a sample of 94 Kuwaiti students of English as an L2. The study was guided by five research questions: (1) Is there a statistically significant effect of intelligence on GPA? (2) Is there a statistically significant effect of aptitude on GPA? (3) Is there a statistically significant effect of personality on GPA? (4) Is there a statistically significant effect of motivation and attitude on GPA? (5) Is there a statistically significant effect of beliefs on GPA? Utilizing an odds ratio approach in which the comparison groups were (a) students who failed and students who did not fail, (b) students who excelled and students who did not excel, and (c) students who achieved at least average performance and students who did not achieve at least average performance, no statistically significant relationships were found between GPA and any of these predictors. The results were discussed in terms of their support for multiple intelligences theory, and some recommendations for future research were made

Keywords: Correlation, English, GPA, L2, Performance, Study

The Relationship between the Achievement of Preparatory Year Students in English Language and Their Achievement in Their Future Studies at Najran University (Published)

The study aimed at identifying the relationship between the achievement of preparatory year students in English language and their achievement in their future studies at Najran University. The data of 156 students from four different colleges were involved in this study. Statistical methods such as Pearson correlation coefficient, one-way ANOVA, simple linear regression, mean and standard deviation were used to analyse the data. The study findings revealed that there is a significant positive relationship between English language achievement and academic achievement. It has been also found that there are no significant differences in achievement in English language attributed to different genders. Similarly, there were no significant differences in academic achievement attributed to college type. Depending on the findings above, English language learning should be emphasised, especially before involvement in academic programs. Enhancement of English language learning can take place in a preparatory year program or any other pre-sessional course. The English learning focus within preparatory programs should be given much more emphasis as it is the only way to bridge the gap between weak outcomes from general education and higher education, since it is apparent that English proficiency amongst school leavers is poor.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, Correlation, EFL, English achievement

Trend of Wheat Production in Lesotho and Its Determinants: Five Decades and Beyond (Published)

Wheat being the third most important cereal crop in Lesotho, after Maize and Sorghum, has been decreasing in production, area planted and yield. This decline has not been determined using statistical analysis. The objectives of the study were to (1) determine trend in wheat production, area planted and yield, (2) estimate regression coefficients of factors affecting wheat and (3) establish correlation coefficient of these factors. Time series data from 1961 to 2013 on total production of wheat, area planted, yield, rainfall and temperature were captured from FAOSTAT (2013). GENSTAT software was perform statistical analysis. The results revealed a dramatic decline in production, area planted and yield of 77%, 82% and 33.16%, respectively. Regression analysis revealed significant difference (p>0.01) among the regrsessors and each regressor had elasticity coefficient influencing wheat production. Correlation analysis showed that yield was highly correlated (r =0.6678) with area and moderately correlated with temperature (r =0.363) and rainfall (r = 0.2011).

Keywords: Correlation, Lesotho, Production, Regression, Wheat Trend

Working Capital Management Antecedents Impact on Firm Specific Factors: A Ten Year Review of Karachi Stock Exchange (Published)

The study aims of investigate relationship of working capital antecedents and profitability of the company. Seven variables are taken as proxy variable to measure working capital and its management. Population of the study is based on Karachi stock exchange listed companies. The sample of study is manufacturing sector of Pakistan. Thus, sample period contains on the ten years from (2005-2014). All variables have sound reliability and data is normally distributed. Therefore, correlation and regression analyses are applied. Hence, study revealed significant relationship of working capital management and profitability.

Keywords: Correlation, Normality, Normally Distributed, Profitability, Regression, Sample Period, Working capital.

A Representational Formalism for Tracking Criminals Using Resource Description Framework (Published)

To effectively represent mass of events oriented data, automated methods for extracting event records and then classifying events and patterns of events into higher level terminology and vocabulary are necessary. Rich representation model and automated methods of correlating event information expressed in such models are becoming a necessity. The Resource Description Framework for Forensics (RDF) framework was developed with the strategic objective “to develop a means by which a consolidated repository of event information can be constituted and then queried in order to provide an investigator with post hoc event correlation.

Keywords: Correlation, Digital Evidence, Framework

The Relevance and Significance of Correlation in Social Science Research (Published)

As important as statistics in the social sciences are, their application to real life situation has been minimal. Many scientific discoveries of great importance would have been impossible if scientists had only conceived of the world in terms of certainty. In many situations studied by scientists, and most certainly in all situations studied in social sciences, researchers can at best identify and measure imperfect associations between variables. Drawing largely from secondary sources, this paper examined the relevance and significance of correlation in social science. Findings showed that correlation is indispensable especially in studies that require the understanding of certainty and the degree to which variables show a mutual association.

Keywords: Correlation, Research, Variable, statistics

Habitat Preferences and Effect of Environmental Factors on the Seasonal Activity of Lithobius Nigripalpis L. Koch, 1867 (Chilopoda: Lithobiomorpha: Lithobiidae) (Published)

The activity of animals is defined mostly by internal genetic mechanisms, but physical factors, such as temperature, soil Ph, light duration, and humidity, play a role in the regulation of this biological process. For centipedes, for example, humidity is one of the key environmental factors that determines their distribution and activity. However, abiotic and biotic factors such as soil pH, temperature, vegetation type, and human disturbance remain relatively understudied and little is known on their importance for the centipede activeness. Here we present a study on the habitat preferences and seasonal activity of Lithobius nigripalpis L. Koch, 1867, a species that is widely distributed in the Balkan Peninsula, adjacent parts of Romania, and Anatolia. The study was carried out from May 2007 to May 2009 in the city of Shumen, NE Bulgaria, and its surroundings. Pitfall trapping had been used to determine the seasonal activity and habitat preferences of the species in a range of ecosystems subjected to different degrees of human pressure. Using the software packages SPSS 9.0 and Stat Plus 3.5.3.a number of statistical analyses were employed to test which environmental factors are relevant to the activity and distribution of the species. Our study revealed that in the studied region L. nigripalpis is euryoecious species, which occurs in all habitat types. However, it demonstrates clear preference for undisturbed open habitats, in particular xerothermic shrubby grasslands of the phytocoenose Festuco-Brometea. The current levels of urbanization of the city do not seem to have any significant effect on the distribution and activity of the species concerned. L. nigripalpis exhibits highest activity during summer season (June to September), with peaks in July and August. The environmental factors that have highest significance for its seasonal activity are air and soil temperature, and soil humidity.

Keywords: Analysis Of Variance, Correlation, Habitat Preferences, Lithobius Nigripalpis, Regression Model


In the present experiment, phytoplankton belonging to 41 species under 23 genera was observed from Teetha wetland ecosystem during the period of investigation from June 2011 to May 2013. Results revealed that, Bacillariophyceae was found to be the dominant group of phytoplankton (39.13 %) followed by Chlorococcales and Cyanophyceae each with (21.74 %), desmids (13.04 %) and Euglenoids (4.35 %). Teetha Lake is found to be rich in phytoplankton diversity and hence productive. Summer period marked an increase in phytoplankton density. Physicochemical factors like Temperature, pH, Sulphate, Potassium, Nitrate nitrogen, Ammonical nitrogen and Silica were found to be the important factors influencing the growth of phytoplankton and they exhibited significant positive correlation with total phytoplankton. Based on Nygaard’s trophic state indices the wetland is said to be oligotrophic. Inter-relationship of various physicochemical factors and their role with seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton is here by discussed.

Keywords: Correlation, Diversity, Physicochemical factors, Phytoplankton, Wetland

Crude Oil Production, Prices, Export And Foreign Exchange Rate, Do They Interact? Evidence from Nigeria (2006 – 2014) (Published)

The purpose of the study is to determine the extent to which Foreign Exchange Rate is influenced by or associated with crude oil selling price, crude oil export and crude oil production and the direction and magnitude of their granger causalities in Nigeria oil and gas sector (2006 -2014). Data were collected from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin and multiple regression, correlation and granger causality approach were adopted in the analysis of data. It was found that foreign exchange rate is positively influenced by volume of crude oil export and the selling price per barrel of crude oil, though not significantly; while a weak and insignificant relationship exists between crude oil export, crude oil production and foreign exchange rate. There is no Granger Causality running from any of the explanatory variables namely crude oil export, crude oil selling price and crude oil production, to foreign exchange rate. This implies that there are other factors that exert more far reaching impact on foreign exchange rate than crude oil production, export and sales price in Nigeria. Hence, the regulatory agencies in Nigeria such as the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) should strengthen other macroeconomic and microeconomic variables in other to foster a stable foreign exchange regime.

Keywords: Causality, Correlation, Foreign Exchange, OPEC, Regression, crude oil


Corruption is an ancient practice that has been traced back to pre-biblical time and made itself known in the ancient civilizations of developed and developing countries. Self-interest affect both the old and the young, man and woman. It is the problem that strata the socio-political and economic structure of any region especially in Igbo land. The aim of this paper is to empirically investigate the relationship between corruption and self-interest in Igbo leadership using SPSS and correlation test. The study also anchored on two theories: the idealistic theory and the anomie theory. The study revealed that the level of corruption and self-interest among Igbo leaders over the years has become a source of embarrassment to Igbos living outside the country and that corruption and self-interest among Igbo leaders has seriously had significant negative affect on the development and services delivery in Igbo land especially in rural areas. The implication of this study is that economy of Igbos cannot grow fast without zero tolerance in corruption and self-interest. The study recommended that the policies that will enhance economic development and reduce the level of corruption and self-interest are expected to be encouraged so that the level of economic growth can be improved in Igbo land. The study also suggests that there should be free and fair election in Igbo land and stops the issue of selection so that the issue of corruption and self-interest will reduce drastically. And that the activities or programmes of the anti-corruption agencies in Nigeria such as the Economic and Financial Crime Commission (EFCC) and the Independent Corrupt Practices and related Offences Commission (ICPC) should be strengthened.

Keywords: Correlation, Corruption, EFCC, ICPC, Leadership, SPSS, Self-Interest

Atmospheric Refractivity over Abuja, Nigeria (Published)

Atmospheric refractivity at Abuja was investigated for disturbed days and quiet days during dry and rainy season. The result of the investigation showed that refractivity variation for disturbed and quiet days during dry and wet season over Abuja are governed by the changes in atmospheric parameters which conversely cause changes in refractive index. The correlation of refractivity with pressure, temperature and relative humidity for disturbed and quiet days indicated that relative humidity and pressure as well as temperature have great correlation effect for disturbed and quiet day in wet season as well as in dry season.

Keywords: Atmospheric Parameters, Correlation, Refractivity

The Causal Correlation of Sin and Suffering (Published)

The paper analyzed the causal relation of sin and suffering, including illness. Modern/postmodern societal perception of suffering, and relationship with ill persons was studied. In addition, the Bible (the Books of Job and Luke) was investigated on the subject. The idea is to use Jesus’ actions and teachings as the assessment criteria. The study is important because it may help minimize or stop the practice of wrong accusations against victims who suffer in any way that their plight is their own doing. The findings of the paper are that: to a great extent people’s perception of illness or suffering in modern/postmodern society and that of the biblical times are similar despite the enormous social and historical gap between both eras. Illness or suffering is seen as a reflection of the sinful state of the victim. This explains why people disassociate with victims of ‘disgraceful’ illnesses. The study concludes that to a large extent, modern perception of illness, particularly, of the debilitating ones, as well as relationship with victims are unethical because it does not tally with that of Jesus whose way of life, actions and teachings form the fons et culmen of Christian ethics and therefore, must be corrected.

Keywords: Correlation, Illness, Perception, Relationship, Retribution, Sin, Suffering