Spirit is the core of the American Dream: An Analysis of Santiago’s struggle in The Old Man and the Sea (Published)
This article is a careful study of ‘spirit’, tireless effort for success, as the cardinal linchpin to lay foundation of the American Dream of a man irrespective of his social class, race, age or religion to lead a life in freedom and to change the life to a particular extent by virtue of which an individual can gain a befitting social recognition and feel ensconced thereby. It also focuses on the struggle through which an individual has to fulfill the American Dream. It shows how the protagonist of The Old Man and the Sea, Santiago, an old American makes indefatigable effort to become successful in securing a place in a competitive society where it is difficult to survive fighting enormous adversity. This paper uses qualitative research strategy counting upon text based analysis to find out the unexplored aspect of the American Dream. Moreover, to facilitate its argument, this paper takes help from published research articles as secondary source. In fact, it challenges the traditional perception that success is the crux of the American Dream, and presents the fact that spirit for amelioration is the core of the American Dream.
The Dynamics of Inflations in Nigeria as They Impact on the Environmental Quality of Enugu, Nigeria (Published)
The dynamics of inflation in Nigeria have affected various sectors. This paper sets out to examine how core and non-core (food) inflations in Nigeria have affected the environmental quality of Enugu Metropolis. Factor Analysis was used to reduce the various environmental quality variables into single factor score known as the ‘Y’ variable. The inflation rates of core and Non-core inflations in Nigeria for various years were used as the inflation variables (X1 and X2 respectively). The environmental quality variable was the dependent variable while inflation variables served as independent variables. Multiple linear regression was used to establish the relationship between the environmental quality variable and core and Non-core inflation variables. The results showed that in the coefficient of determination, adjusted r2 = 0.958, indicating that 95.8% variation in the dependent variable (environmental quality) can be predicted from the independent variable (Core and Non-Core inflations). The environmental quality of Enugu metropolis was negatively impacted by the changes in core and Non-Core inflations in Nigeria. Encouragement of residential property development in various dimensions among others has been recommended to help ameliorate the situation.
Urban amenities comprise the infrastructure, goods and services that are collectively needed for the urban society. These are central to urban society without which urban society cannot emerge and sustain. There is uneven distribution of the different urban amenities particularly in the developing countries. Srinagar city also shows significant unevenness in the provision of urban amenities. The analysis of the data reveals that there is complete disparity in the distribution of health care institutions and ration depots in different wards (Municipal units) of the city. Twenty six wards of the city out of sixty eight (38 percent) have absence of any Health Institution, while as seven wards (10 percent) have deficiency in the establishment of Health Institutions, six wards (9 Percent) have self sufficiency and the rest twenty nine wards (43 percent) posses above normal concentration. Similarly, in case of ration stores, thirty six wards out of sixty eight (53 percent) have above normal concentration, while as the rest thirty two wards (47 percent) have deficiency in the arrangement of provision of ration stores. Even six wards in the city have absence of the ration stores. Ward wise wazirbagh leads the hierarchy as having highest concentration of both Ration stores and Health Institutions. The amenities generally decrease from the core of the city to its peripheries. Therefore it becomes imperative to find a sustainable solution for the provision of adequate and balanced urban amenities and their optimum utilization.