Assessment of Copper and Zinc contamination through vehicular emission on vegetables growing near road side (Published)
Vegetables are important sources of many nutrient, including vitamins, dietary fibre, folate (folic acid), and minerals and have beneficial antioxidative effects. Heavy metals like Cu and Zn can easily enter in our body through consumption of vegetables contaminated with such metals. The toxic levels of the Zinc and Copper in leafy vegetables growing near road side fields were highly dependent on vehicular exhaust and non-exhaust emissions. Industrial emissions and the frequency of brake use and vehicles coming to a complete stop were additional factors that affected the contamination levels of Zn and Cu in leafy vegetables. The concrete highway also had higher contamination levels of such heavy metals than the asphalt highway. Vehicle speed was also a Major factor contributing to the contamination of higher level of Cu and Zn in road side vegetation of heavy traffic areas. The significant level of Cu in vegetables growing in road sides areas may be due to high rate of brake abrasion from the vehicles and the levels of zinc in vegetables is due to tyre abrasion from vehicles as zinc oxide is used as a vulcanizing agent in making tyre rubber. The main aim of this review article is to determine the level of Cu and Zn in leafy vegetables collected from road side (heavy traffic) areas.
In 2015, dissolved As, Cu and Pb levels were measured for the winter and summer seasons in the coastal waters of Caspian Sea in Azerbaijan. Ten stations were sampled around the vicinity areas of the Hovsan channel and Hovsan WWTP discharge outfall, while control samples were obtained 3 km away from the effluent. Levels of heavy metals were assessed using ICP-MS. Due to the rapid dilution, the concentrations of trace metals increased from coastal to seaward stations. High values of As and Pb were recorded in the Hovsan channel area and control zone in summer, while in winter it was constant high for both area. The hot spot area for Cu was observed in the Hovsan channel site in winter. Heavy metals and solids were generally considerably deleterious at discharge area. The high levels and behavior of the metals were assessed, and it is therefore, correlated to salinity, nitrites and ammonium. Moreover, As and Cu appear to co-vary more with Ammonium and Nitrite ions in the control area for the winter samples compared to the summer samples.
Determination of Mineral Contents of Edible Parts of Shellfishes from Okpoka Creeks in Rivers State, Nigeri (Published)
The study was conducted to determine the mineral contents of some selected shellfishes from Okpoka Creek in River State. Copper, iron, manganese, calcium and sodium were quantified using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric method and the concentration of the minerals varied between the different species of shellfishes. High amount of calcium was recorded in C. guanhumi (212.33±1.45mg/100g) while the lowest was observed in T. fuscatus (48.39±1.4mg/100g). The manganese content was higher in T. coronata (1.82±0.10 mg/100g) and lower in T. fuscatus (0.25±0.11mg/100g). Meanwhile the iron content was more in C. gasar (29.5±0.5mg/100g) and lower in C. amnicola (8.07±1.485mg/100g). However, T. coronate showed higher content of copper (10.15±0.17mg/100g) while the lowest copper content was observed in T. fuscatus (2.15±0.43m g/100g). C. amnicola (115.9±0.26mg/100g) recorded the highest amount of sodium while T. coronate (17.43±0.11mg/100g) recorded the least sodium content. The results suggest that these shellfishes are nutritious and are valuable additions to our diet.
The Structural Characterizations of Polymethel(Methaacrylate) Doped Nanoparticle Metal (Cu,Co,Fe) Thin Film by Using Nd-Yag Laser Ablation (Published)
The structural properties of PMMA doped with ( Cu , Co , Fe ) nanoparticls prepared by laser ablation were studied . In this research the polymethyl mehtacrylate (PMMA) was dissolved in chloroform with (5%) concentration to form homogeneous solution. PMMA doped with (Cu ,Fe ,and Co ( nanoparticale (NPs) prepared by Nd-Yag(532nm) laser ablation. The X-ray diffraction shows that the structure of pure polymer film have an amorphous nature, but PMMA doped with (Cu , Co , Fe) nanoparticles are polycrystalline structure. The results indicate that there are a shifting and reduction in positions of peak intensity as compared with the pure (Cu , Co ,Fe) nanoparticles and there are generated some new peaks appear. The AFM examination reveal to reduction in average nanoparticle diameter after doping with NPs metal (Cu , Co , Fe ) . The FT-IR examination appear some transmittance band after doping with NPs metal (Cu , Co , Fe )