Dairying is viable for smallholders but suffers from high transaction costs hence the need for cooperatives that aid farmers to access various services. Agricultural extension disseminates knowledge, physical inputs, credit and builds farmer’ capacity for collecting bargaining and marketing their produce. A descriptive study design was adopted, 200 participants were selected using multi stratified random sampling. Secondary and primary data were collected using a semis-structured checklist and structured questionnaire respectively. Mean productivities for farmers who used or didn’t use extension services were compared using an independent samples t-test statistics. Dairy farmers who accessed business training, artificial insemination, improved fodder and concentrates increased milk production. Access to extension services explained 25.5% of the variations in milk production per cow per day. Dairy farmers are operating profitably with average monthly revenue ($215) versus expenditure ($58).interventions aimed at supporting dairy farmers to increase milk production should prioritize cooperatives and extension services.
This paper presents the role of cooperatives on the socio-economic development of Ethiopia. It is based on a national survey where 173 cooperatives and 831 cooperatives members were taken as a sample and Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) at eight different regions of the country were considered. The study was based on semi-structured questionnaire. It included a period of ten years (2001-2011). Results of the survey reveal that cooperatives have contributed a lot in the country’s economic development besides supporting their members by providing different products, services, as well as variety of benefits such as securing their food, increasing their income, improving life style and social participation, and inputs for their agriculture activities. Moreover, on the average cooperatives support nearly 15.00 to 29.68 descent jobs and spent 28,032.29 up to 122,297.7 birr as wage and salary per cooperative per year. The average contribution of cooperatives to the Ethiopian GDP for the last ten years is found to be relatively less which ranges 1.21% to 12.27%. The overall findings showed that, cooperatives have struggled to impact the socio-economic development of the country and support their members to improve their livelihood with the unpaved economy and policy of the country.
The concept of integrating social aims with profit-making is an emerging trend in the world today, especially in the wake of the 2007-2009 financial crisis which shone the spotlight on the problems of pure profit maximisation. Social enterprise is at the very core of this new movement to integrate social aims with profits, taking root in an increasing number of circles. The Botswana situation is marked by social enterprise being almost non-existent as a concept in the general consciousness. In spite of this conceptual absence, it can be argued that the main ingredients of social enterprises have played a substantial role in the historic formation of the Botswana welfare state in the form of cooperatives. In the first period the workers’ and farmers’ cooperative movements were the most influential actors concerning improvement of livelihoods. As such, this paper will seek to understand the emergence of social enterprises globally and how Botswana as a country can increasingly apply the tool of social entrepreneurship to address a plethora of differing social issues, such as extreme poverty and unemployment, in ameliorating and improving the condition of the people.
A Comparative Study of the Role of Men and Women in Cooperative Development in Udi Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria (Published)
The actualization of Cooperatives development is one of the most common traits of the emerging economies. Government at all levels in different occasions has adopted one developmental strategy or the other, all aimed to successfully install cooperative development. This study had the objective of assessing the role of men and women in cooperative development in Udi Local Government Area of Enugu State in Nigeria. The study employed primary sources of data. The primary data were collected through questionnaires using descriptive statistics. The results of the study indicated that the male cooperators contribute more to cooperative development than their female counterparts. The study concludes that cooperative societies in Udi should be properly and effectively managed. It was also recommended that cooperative societies should endeavour to improve their management skills, balance gender inequality and enhance the personal welfare of members so as to facilitate cooperative development in Udi Local Government Area.
A Survey on the Perceptions of Co-Operators on Gender Disparity and Financial Viability of Agricultural Cooperative Societies in Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)
Gender disparity has been a highly debated topic in many discusses and opinion circles for a very long time, yet ,this contentious topic continue to re-vibrate every now and then in many debates. How this topic has affected agricultural cooperative activities in Rivers State has not yet been captured in any literature. More so, the viability of these cooperatives has never been a front burner in the government’s agricultural policies over time. This research work aims to deliberately draw the attention of stake holders to the contentious topic of gender disparity and financial viability of the agricultural cooperatives that may have retarded its growth and development. 30 agricultural cooperative societies were randomly sampled from the council of Nigerian farmers and some unregistered cooperative societies of agric bias using structured questionnaire. The result showed evidences of gender disparity and financial insolvency. The injection of credit and elimination of gender disparity were suggested as the way forward.
This study was conducted in Nyagatare district located in the Eastern Province of Rwanda. Its objective was to assess the effect of the Crop Intensification program (CIP) on maize production in Nyagatare district. Improved seeds, Inorganic fertilizers, Extension services and Land Use Consolidation were the major variables for consideration in this study and assessment was made as to the contribution they made to maize production in CIP in the study area . The study focused on 24 cooperatives with 97 respondents. It used qualitative approaches to generate the opinion of respondents where data was not readily available and also quantitative methods where both primary and secondary data were used. Primary data was collected using questionnaires from random sample of 97 farmers, and it considered the socio-economic characteristics of farmers while Secondary data was collected from different sources, like Ministry of Agriculture, District offices, Agriculture Sector working Group (ASWG) reports , books, reports and internet.. The research used correlation and regression techniques Research findings revealed that youth and educated people’s engagement in agricultural activities is minimal, that Extension services has not influenced maize production significantly and also that men constitute a bigger proportion of the agriculture work force than women creating a gender gap in the sector. Improved seeds influence significantly maize production more than other independent variables in this study
This study tried to observe the ideal leadership model for co-operatives. By positing two folds of questions (1) how leadership had been developed in the organization and (2) what should be the ideal model. In order to provide clear evidence to the first problem, the study uses cross case analysis from six selected Credit Unions in Indonesia. Having considered the characteristic of each unit, the study developed two categories: complex organization and simple organization. The common model found in the two categories in which leadership must be seen as mechanistic process which encompasses from individual to community leadership. Therefore the study posed the needs for community collective leadership model by proposing a firmly framework. After identifying several dimensions from the model, the study used Dematel method to identify the most considerable dimension. Finally, the study appointed visionary, communicative and popular leader as dimensions to the model, thus preparing future research agenda.
Effect of Crop Intensification Program on Maize Production in Nyagatare, Rwanda. (Published)
This study was conducted in Nyagatare district located in the Eastern Province of Rwanda. Its objective was to assess the effect of the Crop Intensification program (CIP) on maize production in Nyagatare district. Improved seeds, Inorganic fertilizers, Extension services and Land Use Consolidation were the major variables for consideration in this study and assessment was made as to the contribution they made to maize production in CIP in the study area . The study focused on 24 cooperatives with 97 respondents. It used qualitative approaches to generate the opinion of respondents where data was not readily available and also quantitative methods where both primary and secondary data were used. Primary data was collected using questionnaires from random sample of 97 farmers, and it considered the socio-economic characteristics of farmers while Secondary data was collected from different sources, like Ministry of Agriculture, District offices, Agriculture Sector working Group (ASWG) reports , books, reports and internet.. The research used correlation and regression techniques Research findings revealed that youth and educated people’s engagement in agricultural activities is minimal, that Extension services has not influenced maize production significantly and also that men constitute a bigger proportion of the agriculture work force than women creating a gender gap in the sector. Improved seeds influence significantly maize production more than other independent variables in this study .
Sources of Finance and Small and Medium Scale Enterprises’ Performance in Ado-Ekiti Metropolis (Published)
The objective of the research study was to look into the effects of financial source on small and medium enterprises performance in Ado-Ekiti metropolis. Survey research method was used via structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to 225 respondents in 45 conveniently selected registered SMEs in the Ado-Ekiti metropolis. 4 point Likert Scale was employed to collect the respondents’ data. Since the respondents are the owners and concerned authorities of the business, there is no need for undecided option. Stratified sampling technique was adopted while frequency tables were used to explain the demographic of the respondents. Multiples regression analysis was employed in the study since we have multiple independent variables (like: personal savings, informal and formal sources of finance) and one dependent variable (i.e performance). From the findings, it shows that each of the financial sources has a reasonable level connection with the performance of SMEs. The model summary of each of the sources of finance shows personal savings with R2 33.1%, informal 42.0% and formal 46.7% respectively. However, the overall regression analysis results of the three sources indicate that R2 is 35.6% with F-test value of 40.78% attributed to performance. The overall coefficient results show that Mfb in formal source ranked best with t value of 5.933 and 0.00 at 5% level of significance and followed by family in informal source with t value of 3.940 and 0.00 at 5% level of significance and esusu in personal saving with t value of 3.180 and 0.00 at 5% level of significance respectively. The study concluded that there is nexus between sources of finance and business’ performance and from the overall coefficient regression results, it shows that formal source of finance is the most significant independent variables that is enhancing SMEs’ performance in Ado-Ekiti metropolis.
Cooperatives, in order to vie with private business rivals need to offer innovative products and services to its members at competitive terms. This calls for brainstorming, a meticulous approach prior to decision making at the General Assembly, involving a selective few from the general body, board of management, functional managers, and employees.This approach leads to an array of numerous assimilation of worthy innovative ideas to be presented at the General Body, so that one best alternative could be approved by the General Assembly. The methodology employed for this review is qualitative. The application of brainstorming in the decision making of cooperatives has been holistically made explicable by reviewing a wide array of pertinent archival records in the form of leading published books. Analysis is based on specific textual theoretical perspectives, as it outweighs the risk of irrelevant remarks.
Assessing the Performances of Coffee Marketing Cooperatives in Yirgacheffe Woreda, Gedeo Zone, Snnprs, Ethiopia (Published)
In the coffee industry, coffee marketing cooperatives are anticipated to play an innermost role in the efforts to develop the sector. Meanwhile, the contributions of these cooperatives in the developing countries are limited to the smallest margin. Besides to that, the performance of coffee cooperatives in these countries is not yet well studied. Therefore, this study is aimed at assessing the performance of coffee marketing cooperatives in Ethiopia with a special focus on Yirgacheffe woreda. To meet the objective of the study, descriptive types of research techniques were utilized. The results of the study revealed that coffee cooperatives in the study area are moderately progressing so far as strengthening their financial positions and serving their members is concerned. However, they are still challenged by different impinging factors.