Tag Archives: cooking

Effect of Processing On the Proximate and Functional Properties of “Akparata” (Afzelia Africana) Flour (Published)

The Mahogany bean also known as “Akparata” (Afzelia africana) seeds were divided into three portions. The first sample coded with R10, R20 and R30 was processed by roasting at  1000C  (for 10, 20 and 30 minutes) respectively and second sample of the seeds coded C40, C50 and C60 were cooked at 1000C (for 40, 50 and 60 minutes) respectively while the raw unprocessed (third sample) served as the control. The proximate compositions showed significant difference at (P< 0.05)   in some nutrients evaluated. In terms of moisture content, all the cooked samples (C 40, C50 and C60) were higher (28 – 33.5%) than the Control (10.5%) and roasted (4.5 – 6.5%) samples. Also the ash content for the roasted and cooked samples were significantly higher at (P< 0.05) than the control sample (4.0%). The protein content of the raw sample (38.4%) was significantly higher at (P< 0.05) than all the samples treated by roasting and cooking. In terms of fat content, all the roasted samples had higher values (28.0 – 35.5%) than the raw (9.5%) and cooked (7.0- 8.0%) samples which were significantly different at (P< 0.05). The functional properties of the “Akparata” (Afzelia africana) flour with respect to bulk density showed that the roasted samples were higher (0.62 – 0.68g/ml) than the cooked (0.47 -0.54g/ml) and raw (0.60g/ml). In water absorption capacity, all the values obtained in roasted and cooked samples were higher than the control (2.83%). This trend is also similar to oil absorption capacity. With respect to the foaming capacity, the control sample had higher value of (5.66%) when compared to the roasted (0.91 -3.23%) and cooked (1.12 -1.14%) samples. For the viscosity, the raw sample gave the highest value (16cp) when compared to roasted (6 – 10cp) and cooked (5 – 8cp) samples.

Keywords: Akparata seeds, Functional, cooking, roasting

Effect of Processing on the Proximate and Functional Properties of “Akparata” (Afzelia Africana) Flour (Published)

The Mahogany bean also known as “Akparata” (Afzelia africana) seeds were divided into three portions. The first sample coded with R10, R20 and R30 was processed by roasting at  1000C  (for 10, 20 and 30 minutes) respectively and second sample of the seeds coded C40, C50 and C60 were cooked at 1000C (for 40, 50 and 60 minutes) respectively while the raw unprocessed (third sample) served as the control. The proximate compositions showed significant difference at (P< 0.05)   in some nutrients evaluated. In terms of moisture content, all the cooked samples (C 40, C50 and C60) were higher (28 – 33.5%) than the Control (10.5%) and roasted (4.5 – 6.5%) samples. Also the ash content for the roasted and cooked samples were significantly higher at (P< 0.05) than the control sample (4.0%). The protein content of the raw sample (38.4%) was significantly higher at (P< 0.05) than all the samples treated by roasting and cooking. In terms of fat content, all the roasted samples had higher values (28.0 – 35.5%) than the raw (9.5%) and cooked (7.0- 8.0%) samples which were significantly different at (P< 0.05). The functional properties of the “Akparata” (Afzelia africana) flour with respect to bulk density showed that the roasted samples were higher (0.62 – 0.68g/ml) than the cooked (0.47 -0.54g/ml) and raw (0.60g/ml). In water absorption capacity, all the values obtained in roasted and cooked samples were higher than the control (2.83%). This trend is also similar to oil absorption capacity. With respect to the foaming capacity, the control sample had higher value of (5.66%) when compared to the roasted (0.91 -3.23%) and cooked (1.12 -1.14%) samples. For the viscosity, the raw sample gave the highest value (16cp) when compared to roasted (6 – 10cp) and cooked (5 – 8cp) samples.

Keywords: Akparata seeds, Functional, cooking, roasting

Cooking And Physicochemical Properties Of Five Rice Varieties Produced In Ohaukwu Local Government Area (Published)

Four local rice varieties grown and processed in Ohaukwu and One foreign rice varieties (caprice gold) were analyzed for their cooking, chemical and physical properties. Cooking time differed with variety (p<0.05) and the ranged between 17-23 minutes. Volume expansion ratio varied from 1.67-3.67cm3. Caprice, Faro44 and Faro 15 had higher volume expansion ratio than the other varieties (P<0.05). Gelatinization time varied with variety and the range between 4-11 minutes. Caprice took a longer time to gelatinize and Faro 14 and IRR8 the shortest time. The other varieties differ (p<0.05) in their gelatinization time. Grain elongation during cooking, amount of water evaporating during cooking and solid in cooking water ranged between 0.18-0.38m, 19-42%, 0.02-0.64(g). The values for the amylose ranged between 7.6-37.2% and amylopectin ranged between 69.8-79.8%. The range of physical properties from all the varieties were, length 0.595 to 0.753m, width 0.217 to 0.287m, length/ width ration 2.188 to 3.470mm.

Keywords: Rice, Time, Varieties, cooking, gelatinization

Effect of Processing On the Nutritional and Anti Nutritional Properties of Canavalia Plagiosperma Piper Seeds (Published)

The effect of heat processing on the nutritional and anti nutritional qualities of oblique -seeded jack bean (Canavalia plagiosperma piper) was studied. Raw seeds of Canavalia plagiosperma (Oblique seeded Jack bean) were autoclaved (at 1210C, 15lb for 25, 30 and 35 minutes) and cooked (at 1000C for 30, 40 and 50 minutes). The proximate composition and anti-nutrients of the processed and raw samples were determined. The proximate composition showed that moisture content of raw seed was 8.26%, 35 minutes autoclaving increased it to 8.53% while 50 minutes cooking increased it to 8. 84%. Autoclaving reduced protein content from 31.54% to 31.28% while cooking reduced it from 31.54% to 28.86%. The ash content was reduced from 3.17% to 2.95% by autoclaving and from 3.17% to 2.51% by cooking. Autoclaving showed increasing effect on fat and energy content,(0.82-9.23%) and (1635.66-1637.94 KJ/g) respectively. The fibre content of the raw seed was found to be 0.94%, which was reduced to 0.88% by autoclaving and 0.62% by cooking. Cooking significantly increased the carbohydrate content (47.36-52.15%). The processing treatments showed significant effect (P≤0.05) on each parameter. Six (6) anti-nutrients (Saponin: 2.45%, Phytic acid: 3.15%, Tannin: 1.02%, Oxalate: 1.48%, Phenol: 0.34%, Trypsin Inhibitor: 11.53Tu/g) were determined in the raw seed. The six processing treatments given to the seed showed a general reduction trend on these six anti-nutrients at different rates and levels. From the results in Table 3 and 4, autoclaving was the best processing method for phytic acid, and phenol while cooking was the best processing method for tannin, trypsin inhibitor, saponin and oxalate.

Keywords: Anti – Nutrients, Canavalia plagiosperma piper, Proximate, autoclaving, cooking

EFFECT OF PROCESSING ON THE PROXIMATE AND FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF “AKPARATA” (AFZELIA AFRICANA) FLOUR (Published)

The Mahogany bean also known as “Akparata” (Afzelia africana) seeds were divided into three portions. The first sample coded with R10, R20 and R30 was processed by roasting at 1000C (for 10, 20 and 30 minutes) respectively and second sample of the seeds coded C40, C50 and C60 were cooked at 1000C (for 40, 50 and 60 minutes) respectively while the raw unprocessed (third sample) served as the control. The proximate compositions showed significant difference at (P< 0.05) in some nutrients evaluated. In terms of moisture content, all the cooked samples (C 40, C50 and C60) were higher (28 – 33.5%) than the Control (10.5%) and roasted (4.5 – 6.5%) samples. Also the ash content for the roasted and cooked samples were significantly higher at (P< 0.05) than the control sample (4.0%). The protein content of the raw sample (38.4%) was significantly higher at (P< 0.05) than all the samples treated by roasting and cooking. In terms of fat content, all the roasted samples had higher values (28.0 – 35.5%) than the raw (9.5%) and cooked (7.0- 8.0%) samples which were significantly different at (P< 0.05). The functional properties of the “Akparata” (Afzelia africana) flour with respect to bulk density showed that the roasted samples were higher (0.62 – 0.68g/ml) than the cooked (0.47 -0.54g/ml) and raw (0.60g/ml) samples . In water absorption capacity, all the values obtained in roasted and cooked samples were higher than the control (2.83%). This trend is also similar to oil absorption capacity. With respect to the foaming capacity, the control sample had higher value of (5.66%) when compared to the roasted (0.91 -3.23%) and cooked (1.12 -1.14%) samples. For the viscosity, the raw sample gave the highest value (16cp) when compared to roasted (6 – 10cp) and cooked (5 – 8cp) samples

Keywords: Akparata seeds, Flour, Functional, cooking, roasting

COOKING AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF FIVE RICE VARIETIES PRODUCED IN OHAUKWU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA (Published)

Four local rice varieties grown and processed in Ohaukwu and One foreign rice varieties (caprice gold) were analyzed for their cooking, chemical and physical properties. Cooking time differed with variety (p<0.05) and the ranged between 17-23 minutes. Volume expansion ratio varied from 1.67-3.67cm3. Caprice, Faro44 and Faro 15 had higher volume expansion ratio than the other varieties (P<0.05). Gelatinization time varied with variety and the range between 4-11 minutes. Caprice took a longer time to gelatinize and Faro 14 and IRR8 the shortest time. The other varieties differ (p<0.05) in their gelatinization time. Grain elongation during cooking, amount of water evaporating during cooking and solid in cooking water ranged between 0.18-0.38m, 19-42%, 0.02-0.64(g). The values for the amylose ranged between 7.6-37.2% and amylopectin ranged between 69.8-79.8%. The range of physical properties from all the varieties were, length 0.595 to 0.753m, width 0.217 to 0.287m, length/ width ration 2.188 to 3.470mm.

Keywords: Rice, Time, Varieties, cooking, gelatinization