Mind the GAAP: Cultural, Political, and Legislative Roadblocks To IFRS Integration in the U.S. (Published)
In October, 2002, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) signed the ground-breaking Norwalk Agreement. This agreement signified the two parties’ commitment to the ultimate convergence of United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles and International Financial Reporting Standards. What appeared at its genesis as a good faith effort to speed convergence between the two respective frameworks seems to have misfired, with an emphasis which now appears to be moving away from convergence, and focused instead on the duality and plurality of co-existing frameworks. The SEC, a governmental entity who had previously issued a clarion call for convergence and had gone so far as to eliminate the required IFRS – GAAP reconciliations for overseas issuers in 2007, appeared in 2011 to do something of a U-turn, and even appeared to retreat from their initial convergence position by suggesting that a US issuer who is in compliance with US GAAP be allowed to state that their financial statements are also in compliance with IFRS. This paper examines the changing attitudes and increasing aversion toward IFRS integration in the US, and attempts to understand some of the reasons; specifically cultural, political, and legislative, which may help to explain this changing of attitudes and direction. There appears to be a litany of prior research relating to US GAAP and IFRS integration, but the research does not tend to focus on specific reasons why convergence has not occurred, and why attitudes toward it have changed. This paper attempts to fill a perceived gap in the research related to the examination of potential political, cultural and legislative drivers of non-convergence. The paper also briefly examines literature related to research conducted which questions whether IFRS has had a positive effect on global capital markets, and whether this positive effect may actually have been caused by the existence of other factors.
This study investigated per capita income convergence in member countries of ECOWAS and the prospect of petroleum trade providing the needed catalyst to cause their per capita incomes to converge to ECOWAS average. The neoclassical growth model framework was used to examine absolute and conditional convergence among the member countries. The descriptive statistics shows that the mean value of per capita GDP in ECOWAS is $555.0; the median value is $544.8. The maximum is $1286.5 and minimum is $309.513. An inspection of the data indicates that most countries in ECOWAS had per capita income below ECOWAS average hence the need to aim at a convergence towards an average of per capita income within ECOWAS. The models specified include absolute and conditional convergence. Pedroni cointegration tests were used to test for stationarity and cointegration. The results indicate some evidence for a stationary behavior of the residuals and concluded that there exists a panel-cointegrating relationship between per capita income, non oil trade and population. Although there is evidence of absolute convergence, it did so with a slow annual speed of 1.6 per cent. But the conditional β-convergence based on non-oil trade and other variables consistently sustained the convergence with higher annual speeds ranging from 2.1 to 2.5 per cents. The study recommended that common Non-oil trade policies should consider absolute and comparative advantages of member countries in moderating rules on trade liberalization and integration process. Petroleum trade should also be encouraged in the ECOWAS sub region and there should be internal integration with each member state based on political stability, inclusiveness and equity.
This paper presents explicitly a survey of uniformly integrable sequences of random variables. We also study extensively several cases and conditions required for uniform integrability, with the establishment of some new conditions needed for the generalization of the earlier results obtained by many scholars and researchers, noting the links between uniform integrability and pointwise convergence of a class of polynomial functions on conditional based.