Contrastive Study of the Phonological Systems of the English Language and the Izzi Dialect of the Igbo Language (Published)
This exploration is a contrastive assessment of the sound systems of the English language and the Izzi dialect of the Igbo language. It highlights areas of similarities and differences of the two tongues in order to predict the difficulties that Izzi speakers of the English language would experience in the study of the English Language as a second language. This inquiry therefore, concentrates on the similarities and differences found at the segmental level of both languages. The Primary, Secondary and the cannons of Contrastive Analysis are employed in the course of this investigation, and this survey reveals that some sounds in the English Language such as /ʌ/ɜ:/and /∂/ are absent in the sound system of Izzi dialect, and recommends that Izzi speakers of the English Language should make keen efforts to master the correct pronunciation of the English sounds in order to make themselves intelligible to other users of the English Language.
This study postulates that eventhough there are significant structural similarities between Annang and English, there are a number of underlying dissimilarities in these apparent similarities. Annang people live in eight local government areas in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. The Annang speaker of English tends to apply the grammatical rules of Annang in his use of English, often violating the intuition of native speakers of English. Moreover, movement from a relatively free and flexible system of word order in Annang to a syntactically bound system in English also poses grammatical problems for the Annang speaker of English. Three null hypotheses were used in the study to capture differences and similarities in the grammatical structures of the two languages, particularly on how these differences and similarities affect the use of English by an Annang person. The population of the study consisted of Annang speakers of English in the eight local government areas in Annangland. One hundred and sixty respondents were selected using stratified random sampling. Literature was reviewed on contrastive analysis, justifying its use in the study. Literature was also reviewed on grammar and the structural patterns of language. The study made significant revelations on the similarities and differences in the structures of Annang and English. At 0.01 confidence level and 1 degree of freedom (df), the calculated value of X2 (102.04) was greater than the table value of X2 (6.63). Consequently, Ho was rejected in favour of H1 in hypothesis 1. Again at 0.01 confidence level and 1 degree of freedom (df), the calculated value of X2 (87.64) was greater than the table value of X2 (6.63). Consequently, H0 was rejected for H1 in hypotheses 2 and 3. The conclusion was that communication in English by Annang speakers is largely affected by similarities and differences existing between the two languages. Teachers of English in Annangland should be sufficiently trained to master the rules of English grammar as well as identify the problems confronting their students in the learning of English. There is need for government and non-governmental organizations to sponsor English language seminars as well as encourage Mother Tongue Education.
Iconicity vs. Arbitrariness of Sound Symbolism Phenomenon through a Contrastive Analysis Framework (Published)
This paper reports on the comparison and contrast drawn between sound symbols of Persian, English, and Spanish In order to embody the form-meaning relationship from a universal point of view. 140 sound symbols chosen from Persian onomatopoeic dictionary (1996) and their English and Spanish counterparts were first categorized according to Hinton et al.’s (1994) typology. Using Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis the phonemes were described and contrasted in three languages afterwards. Prediction was made consequently. Together the findings suggest that no absolute arbitrariness or iconicity could be considered for sound symbols. As a matter of fact there are different sound symbols categories and each is of a special degree of iconicity/arbitrariness. It is inferred that a continuum can best demonstrate the order and degree of iconicity for sound symbols.
This paper is an attempt to do a contrastive study of some aspects of the supra-segmental features of Igala and English phonology. It provides an opportunity to analyse the errors in the speech of Igala second language (L2) speakers of English. The framework used in the analysis is the autosegmental theory. Autosegmental theory lays claim to non-linear representation of sounds. Autosegmental phonology is adopted for its theoretical elegance and empirical relevance. A tiered approach to the study gives one an opportunity to analyse the speech errors in terms that are easy to appreciate; especially since the processes are characterized in such a way as to reflect the realities of phonological structure and organisation. Interviews and participant observation were used to obtain data. These were later supplemented by listening comprehension tests.