The work interrogates an imposed constitutionalism in contemporary African societies. We traced the development of imposed constitutionalism to 1945 when Japan was defeated and American drafted a constitution for Japanese which were described as old fashion and the present imposed constitutionalism been drafted and adopted under the shadow of gun; it happened in Yugoslavia, East Timor, Afghanistan and Iraq. Since majority of African states constitution are imposed, the work set out to examine the impact of imposed constitutionalism on contemporary African states. We discovered that the attempt by one country to impose a constitution on another country is bound to be a difficult task, more so when the reform is coming from outside. Because impose constitutionalism will bring with it a new culture, the cultural conditions that may not fixed in to the country concern. The work then suggests that the advanced countries should give the African opportunity to try their hand on their own constitution, the constitution that will fit in to the culture of the country concern. And the African on the other hand should endeavor to chose the best out of the crops of learned men endowed the continent to produce a constitution that will not only fit in to the culture but that will take care of the common good of the citizen.
Radiative Forcing Due To Long-Living and Well-Mixed Greenhouse Gases – A Continental View (Published)
The radiative forcing due to the long-lived and well-mixed greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) has been calculated for two countries in each of the world’s continents for an eleven year period (2001-2011) except for Antarctica where no data was published. We found that for the countries under consideration the average values of radiative forcing by CO2, CH4 and N2O were 1.6774Wm-2, 0.5705 Wm-2 and 0.2094 Wm-2 respectively, increasing annually by 0.0255 Wm-2, 0.0011 Wm-2 and 0.0025 Wm-2 also respectively. USA was the top on the list with radiative forcing value of 1.7157 Wm-2 by CO2 increasing annually by 0.0278 Wm-2 while Australia was least with 1.6470 Wm-2 with an annual incremental trend of 0.0262 Wm-2. This is largely believed to be due to heavy industrial activity in that region. We also found by calculation that if this present trend continues (as it is very likely to and even increase) that by the year 2101, the radiative forcing by CO2 in a country like the USA would rise to 3.952 Wm-2 while globally, the value would rise to 3.834 Wm-2 with CO2 emission rising up to 920ppm per year.