Assessment of heavy metals concentration in crude oil contaminated water samples of three communities of Ikpokpo, Atanba, and Okpele-ama of Gbaramatu Kingdom, along the Escravos River in Warri South West Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria (Published)
Background: Water plays a significant role in maintaining the human health and welfare. Increase in industrialization and various human activities have recently increased the pollution of surface water and ground water (WHO, 1997). The aim of this study was to carry out the analysis of the specified heavy metals present in the crude oil contaminated water samples obtained from six different crude oil contaminated sites of three communities of Ikpokpo, Atanba and Okpele-ama of Gbaramatu Kingdom along the Escravos River in Warri South West L.G.A of Delta State, Nigeria, and to determine their health effects on the affected communities aforesaid. Standard analytical method (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer – (AAS) Analyst 400 model) was used to carry out the analysis. Table 1, presents the WHO maximum permissible limits of some specified heavy metals in normal drinking water sources. Also, the results of the two samples analysed were all being presented from table 2 to 5 as being indicated in a tabular form. Upon comparison, between the mean values of the crude oil contaminated samples (table 5), with the WHO permissible values (table 1) and normal water samples analysed (table 3), It was found out that the crude oil contaminated water samples values were all above the WHO maximum permissible limits of heavy metals concentrations in normal drinking water sources (WHO, 2003, 2005 and 2011).Therefore, there is need for remediation of the crude oil contaminated water samples to the level of WHO standard guidelines.
Effect of Cassava Mill Effluent on Microbial Properties of Garden Soil: Eziobodo Imo State Nigeria (Published)
An assessment of the Effect of Cassava Effluent on Garden Soil was made. Two soil samples were collected; one from a farmland polluted with cassava effluent and, another as an unpolluted sample – free from cassava effluent pollution. The microbial analyses were carried out to investigate the effects of the cassava effluent on the soil microbial qualities of garden soil. Results showed that unpolluted soil sample was normal, while the results of the polluted soil sample showed extinct or absence of normal garden soil microbial fauna with the presence of Staphylococcus aureus which are more harmful than good wherever they are found. However, the presumptive identification of fungi in the polluted soil sample showed presence of Candida sp. The results of the bacteriological count showed absence of coliform bacteria, and the Triple sugar iron and various biochemical reactions showed the absence of bacteria such as Bacillus sp which possess nitrogenise and is able to fix atmospheric nitrogen. Such genus of bacteria could stimulate plant growth by colonizing plant tissues – external or internal and providing fixed nitrogen to the host plant. Also various species of Bacillus have the ability to increase plant nutrients in soil. Bacillus forms positive interactions (symbiotic) involving bacteria and fungi to stimulate growth in plants. Many strains are capable of inhibiting pathogenic growth or activity directly and indirectly in soil.Enlightenment campaign, detoxifying cassava effluent in accordance with regulatory Standard, appropriate method(s) of environmental friendly disposal of both solid and cassava wastewater are recommended for safe and healthy environment.
Effect of Cassava Mill Effluent on Microbial Properties of Garden Soil – Eziobodo Imo State Nigeria (Published)
An assessment of the Effect of Cassava Effluent on Garden Soil was made. Two soil samples were collected; one from a farmland polluted with cassava effluent and, another as an unpolluted sample – free from cassava effluent pollution. The microbial analyses were carried out to investigate the effects of the cassava effluent on the soil microbial qualities of garden soil. Results showed that unpolluted soil sample was normal, while the results of the polluted soil sample showed extinct or absence of normal garden soil microbial fauna with the presence of Staphylococcus aureus which are more harmful than good wherever they are found. However, the presumptive identification of fungi in the polluted soil sample showed presence of Candida sp. The results of the bacteriological count showed absence of coliform bacteria, and the Triple sugar iron and various biochemical reactions showed the absence of bacteria such as Bacillus sp which possess nitrogenise and is able to fix atmospheric nitrogen. Such genus of bacteria could stimulate plant growth by colonizing plant tissues – external or internal and providing fixed nitrogen to the host plant. Also various species of Bacillus have the ability to increase plant nutrients in soil. Bacillus forms positive interactions (symbiotic) involving bacteria and fungi to stimulate growth in plants. Many strains are capable of inhibiting pathogenic growth or activity directly and indirectly in soil. Enlightenment campaign, detoxifying cassava effluent in accordance with regulatory Standard, appropriate method(s) of environmental friendly disposal of both solid and cassava wastewater are recommended for safe and healthy environment.
Assessment of Physicochemical parameters in crude oil contaminated water samples of three communities of Ikpokpo, Atanba, and Okpele-ama of Gbaramatu Kingdom, along the Escravos River in Warri South West Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria (Published)
Background: Water plays a significant role in maintaining the human health and welfare. Due to increase in industrialization, urbanization and various human activities has increase the pollution of surface water and ground water (WHO, 1997). The aim of this study was to carry out the physicochemical analysis of crude oil contaminated water samples obtained from the crude oil contaminated sites of the three communities of Ikpokpo, Atanba and Okpele-ama of Gbaramatu Kingdom of Warri South West L.G.A of Delta State, Nigeria and determine its effects on the aforementioned communities and also to compare the results obtained with other sources of normal drinking water. Results: WHO maximum permissible limits for all the parameters are being presented in Table 1. The results of all the physicochemical parameters analysed using different analytical methods can be summarised as follows: From Table 3, pH of water has mean of 6.8, standard deviation of ±0.147 and the range value is from 6.0 to 7.0. Also, from table 5, the mean is 5.7 and range value is from 5.2 to 6.1, with standard deviation of ±0.354 respectively. Decrease or increase in pH values of water below or above the WHO permissible limits can result in a serious health related complications such as vomiting, cholera, diarrhoea, kidney and liver diseases, stomach cramps and nausea upon consumption. In table 3, the average value is 1.39NTU, the standard deviation is ±0.103NTU and the range is from 1.21NTU to 1.5NTU. The range of the results in Table 5 is from 27NTU to 40NTU and the mean or average value is 31NTU with standard deviation ±3.488NTU. Increased turbidity level in water is not desirable and can lead to some health related issues such as gastrointestinal diseases e.g. perianal abscesses, colitis. More so, from table 3, the mean value of temperature is 28.3˚C and the range is from 28oC to 28.7oC with standard deviation of ±0.248˚C. Furthermore, the results in table 5, has the standard deviation of ± 1.472˚C, the mean value is 32oC with ranges from 30˚C to 34oC respectively. The average value of electrical conductivity from Table 3 is 187µs/cm and the range is from 180µs/cm -193µs/cm with standard deviation of ±5.269 µs/cm, meanwhile, in Table 5, the standard deviation is ±3889.3µs/cm, average value of electrical conductivity is 24197.2µs/cm and the range is from 16871 to 27300µs/cm. These values are higher than the maximum permissible limits of electrical conductivity in water. The range of TSS values in Table 3 is from 17mg/L to 23mg/L and the mean value is 20.3mg/L with standard deviation of ±2.160mg/L. Upon comparison with the values of TSS from table 5, with mean 35.8mg/L, while the range is from 31mg/L to 40mg/L and standard deviation of ±1033.9mg/L, which were all above the ranges of WHO TSS limit in normal drinking water. This can serve as a growth medium for bacteria and other microorganisms. TDS in Table 3 has the mean value of 118mg/L, the range values from 110mg/L-125mg/L and the standard deviation is ±5.138. Also from table 5, the mean value of 17796.7mg/L and the ranges from 16400mg/L to 19500mg/L with standard deviation of ±2.898mg/L. High content of TDS values produces an unwanted taste and diluted colour in water, indicating that the water is mineralised as such; upon consumption of the water with high TDS limits, can result in health related complications like kidney and heart diseases. Conclusion: On the basis of findings, it was concluded that the crude oil contaminated water samples collected from the crude oil contaminated sites of the three communities aforesaid were all above the permissible limits (WHO, 1997). Meanwhile, the normal drinking water samples obtained within Kano Metropolis, used in benchmarking were consistent with WHO standards.
Water Pollution Scenario at River Uramurukwa Flowing Through Owerri Metropolis, Imo State, Nigeria (Published)
Pollution scenario of water from River Uramurukwa was investigated. In both rainy and dry season, 5 water samples each taken from different points were analysed to determine physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals (using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer). The investigated physico-chemical parameters for both dry and rainy season respectively ranges from: temperature (32-32.4oC, 29-29.8oC), electrical conductivity (15.67-2.00 µS/cm, 7.31-61 µS/cm), pH(5.2-5.7, 5.9-6.7), total dissolved solids (2.67-3.98 mg/L, 3.29-5.33 mg/L) and TSS (4.43-6.64 mg/L,4.88-5.84 mg/L). The analysed major ions were: sodium (Na+)(1.30-1.67 mg/L, 1.76-2.38 mg/L), potassium (K+)(0.819-0.898 mg/L, 0.08-1.89 mg/L), magnesium (Mg2+)(1.13-2.78 mg/L, 1.23-2.86 mg/L), calcium (Ca2+)(22.92-24.6 mg/L, 13.9-43.9 mg/L), nitrate (NO3–)(0.91-0.96 mg/L, 0.56-0.97 mg/L), phosphate (PO43- )(0.34-1.65 mg/L, 1.07-2.17 mg/L) and sulphate (SO42-)(23.4-24.8 mg/L, 21.02-29.18 mg/L). The investigated heavy metals were: lead (Pb), zinc (Zn)(1.2-2.63 mg/L, 1.60-3.33 mg/L), copper (Cu)(0.13-0.79 mg/L,0.001-0.61 mg/L), iron (Fe)(0.091-0.19 mg/L,0.017-1.97 mg/L), cadmium (Cd)(0.002-0.180 mg/L, 0.002-0.025 mg/L), manganese (Mn)(0.08-1.02 mg/L, 0.008-0.091 mg/L). Temperature, Ec, DO,TDS and TSS were found to compile with WHO guidelines for domestic drinking water except for pH. Cu, Mn, Fe, in the water samples were all within the recommended guidelines of FEPA and WHO for domestic water use. High concentrations of Cd, Mn and Fe were observed at point 2 while all points for Zn and Pb exhibited high concentration. Water quality Index showed the area is unpolluted and safe for use. No ecological risk was observed except for Cd and Pb. PLI was all within recommended limit except for point 2 during the dry season. It should be observed that the River is polluted with Cd and Pb, this are highly toxic metals which can cause serious health damages even at low concentration.
Assessment of Some Selected Automated Teller Machines in Kaduna Metropolis for Pathogenic Bacteria Contamination (Published)
Selected Automated Teller Machines in Kaduna Metropolis were assessed for pathogenic bacteria contamination. Pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia were isolated using standard methods. Kano Road and Ahmadu Bello Way had the highest number of isolates as well as sample size because of the concentration of the banks around these roads and the influx of people within and around this area who do business on a daily basis. K. pneumoniae had the largest percentage of isolates with 46 (23.0%), followed by S. dysenteriae with 37 (18.50%). S. aureus, S. tyhimurium, and P. aeruginosa had 33 (16.50%), 32 (16.0%) and 29 (14.5%) respectively while E. coli had the smallest percentage of isolates with 22 (11.0%). The correlation coefficient (r) of 0.60 obtained showed that there is a strong relationship between the isolated pathogenic bacteria and the Automated Teller Machines.
This study evaluates the physico-chemical properties of groundwater in Ogbia, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Standard field and laboratory methods were followed. The results of the study revealed that the pH value ranges from 6.4 to 7.1 with an average of 6.86 indicating a slightly acidic condition. The concentration level of iron in the study area ranges from 0.1mg/l to 4.2mg/l with a mean value of 1.89mg/l. 13.3% of iron in sampled locations satisfy the World Health Organization (WHO) and Nigerian Standards for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) highest desirable level of 0.3mg/l. The concentration of calcium ranges between 3.0mg/l to 13.1mg/l, with a mean value of 8.83mg/l, while magnesium concentration was from 1.8mg/l to 9.0mg/l, with a mean value of 5.6mg/l. The concentration level of phosphate in the study area ranges from 0.02mg/l to 0.19mg/l, with a mean value of 0.12mg/l. Chloride concentration level in the sampled locations was between 10mg/l to 39mg/l, with a mean of value of 23.8mg/l, all the values recorded were within the permissible WHO and NSDWQ standard of 250mg/l. The low concentration level of chloride in the area indicates that there is no salt water intrusion, hence all the locations have freshwater. The cations were in order of abundance as Na+ > Ca 2+ > Mg 2+ > Fe 2+ > Mn 2+, while anions were in the order of abundance as SO4 > Cl > NO3 > F > NH3 > PO4. Piper Trilinear Diagram for the study area showed that there were mixtures of two types of water with variable concentrations of major ions. These were sodium-chloride type and sodium- sulphate type of water, an indication that the water was from a marine source. Based on the result from this study, there is the need for regular ground water quality monitoring and effective management strategies in the area.
Since petroleum production began, pollution of natural environments by crude oil and its products had been devastitating; exposure of microorganisms to the crude oil contamination could have some measurable effects on soil microbial community and in turn alter soil fertility. This study therefore focused on the response of fungi to diesel oil contamination in a soil. Soil samples (3kg weight) were contaminated with 90ml, 180ml, and 270ml volumes of diesel oil; uncontaminated soil (0ml volume) served as control. Microbiological analysis of the soil samples was carryout on saboraud dextrose agar and mineral salts oil ager at days 1, 7, 14 and 21 intervals after addition of diesel oil to the soils. Mean counts of heterotrophic fungi (X103CFU G-1 soil) were: 0ml, 7.0, 90ml, 4.5, 180ml, 4.5, and 270ml, 4.0. Mean densities of hydrocarbon-utilizing fungi (X102CFU G-1 soil) for 0ml, 90ml, 180ml, and 270ml soil options were: 5.0, 3.5, 6.8 and 3.0 respectively. Fungal organisms isolated include Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus species, Fusarium species, Mucor species, Rhizopus species and Saccharomyces species, which occurred in control soil and polluted soils but Mucor species did not occur in 90ml soil option. The study showed that heterotrophic fungi responded negatively to addition of diesel oil to soil while hydrocarbon-utilizing fungi showed both positive and negative response depending on the volume of diesel added to soil. Occurrence of fungal organisms in polluted soils explained the fact that fungi are capable of utilizing diesel oil and can be used in cleanup operations in crude oil spillage sites.
Trace metal contamination at 4 selected auto workshops at cape coast Ghana has been ascertained in this study. A total of 18 soil samples from auto-repair workshops and 44 soil samples from control sites were sampled and analyzed using energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF). Heavy metals like Fe ,Cu, Zn ,Cr, Pb and Mn were analyzed .Mn concentrations were between 364.6713g/g and 1934.063g/g. Cu concentrations were between 42.33g/g and 299.36g/g, Zn concentrations fell between 67.08g/g and 544.26g/g, Cr concentration were between 93.54g/g and 1266.23, Ni concentrations were between75.89g/g and 217.52, Pb concentrations were also between 73.89g/g and 713.65g/g, Fe concentrations were between 21485g/g and 47317.50g/g, which is below its natural occurrence. The enrichment factor (EF) was also used to identify possible levels of contamination from anthropogenic sources. Mechanical shop, Spraying shop, Wielding shop and Electrical shop were contaminated with Fe, Ni, Cu and Mn.
Hydrochemistry and Sanitary Risk Assessment of Domestic Hand-Dug Wells in Ado-Ekiti, Southwestern Nigeria (Published)
This research focused on hydrochemistry and sanitary risk assessment of domestic hand-dug wells in Ado-Ekiti, southwestern Nigeria with a view to improve/ensure the safety of the drinking water supply in the study area. To carry out the sanitary risk assessment, all the hazards and hazardous events that can affect the safety of water supply from the shallow wells through treatment and distribution to the consumers’ point of use were identified and evaluated. Subsequently, 30 water samples fairly spread over the catchment area were taken and analyzed for chemical constituents employing Atomic Absorption Spectrometer for the cations and ion chromatography for the anions. E-coli of another set of the 30 water samples were determined using standard method. Result of the sanitary survey revealed that 14 of the sampled wells were at high risk with 13 and 3 of them in intermediate and low risk respectively. The hydrochemistry of the groundwater revealed that most of the wells in the study area were at risk of contamination as indicated by the high chemical concentrations of NO3- (>50mg/L) and Cl-(>250mg/L) in 43% and 70% of the sampled water respectively. All other chemical parameters have concentrations within approved WHO standard for drinking water. E-coli were present in 90% (27out of 30 samples) of the water samples and this clearly support the sanitary survey of which 27 of the sampled well water fell into high to intermediate risk category. The study indicated that 90% of the wells in the study area are at risk of contamination. High concentrations of NO3- and Cl- from hydrochemical evaluation of the well water as well as presence of e-coli in 90% of the water indicated that the sources of pollution are from anthropogenic sources related to human and animal wastes at close proximity to wells. Safety of the water from the hand dug wells can be improved if health education is intensified in the area.
Quantifying the Productivity of Spent Oil Contaminated Soil Amended With Organic Wastes Using Productivity Index in Abakaliki, South Eastern Nigeria (Published)
A study on quantifying the productivity of spent oil contaminated soil amended with organic wastes using productivity index (PI) was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki. The study involved a modification of Pierce et al. productivity index model with simultaneous exclusion of sufficiencies for aeration and electrical conductivity. The applicability and validity of the modified Pierce et al. productivity index model were determined using maize as a test crop. Result showed highly significant (r=0.96 at P<0.01) relationship between PI and grain yield of maize. The general mean PI and grain yield of maize were 0.32 and 0.94 tha-1for the treatments. The mean productivity indices with grain yield of maize were 0.20 and 0.50tha-1, 0.40 and 1.2otha-1, 0.26 and 0.80 tha-1 and 0.42 and 1.3tha-1 for control, burnt rice husk dust, unburnt rice husk dust and saw dust amended soils, respectively. The burnt rice husk dust which had highest prediction of 0.58 also predicted highest grain yield of maize of 2.2tha-1. The grain yield of maize followed productivity index predictions. Organic wastes could be recommended for attenuating problem of spent oil contamination of soil in Abakaliki.