The Impact of National Culture on International Marketing and Consumer Behavior in Iraqi Kurdistan, Focusing on Hofstede’s Model (Published)
In order to investigate the influence of national culture on international marketing and consumer behavior and answer the research questions in Iraqi Kurdistan, this paper tend to identify Hofstede cultural dimensions and explain how these dimensions may impact the global marketing management. The first section of this study focuses on international marketing and national culture in order to investigate the past research on how national culture can impact international marketing and consumer behavior as dependent variable. Thereafter, some questions were asked and a quantitative self-respond questionnaire was used to measure the Iraqi Kurds cultural values. This research used convenience sample method and it is based on the population of 272 professional managers at different organizational levels. Then, it was combined with the past research results by the same author to bring consistency and reliability to the research and also reduce sample error. In the last section, data were analyzed and at the end a deep discussion was created to respond the questions. The findings explain the relationship between both variables and support the past works by De Mooij and Hofstede as concrete works that can be applied by international managers. Therefore, researcher concludes that this paper provide strong argument that there is positive relationship between national culture and international marketing. At the end some suggestions were made.
Clearing the Conceptual and Measurement Confusion between Enduring Product Involvement and Product Importance: A Critical Review and Empirical Evidence (Published)
Consumers’ arousal and concern in the product is a reflection of its perceived self expressive and hedonic values, which are the main components of enduring product involvement. Many previous studies have confirmed the existence of these two components of enduring involvement and pointed out that most of the other components that were mentioned in past studies were either confused with involvement antecedents and behavioural outcomes, or were implied and included in the hedonic and self expressive dimensions of enduring involvement. Other misconceptions of the components of enduring involvement included the consideration of some situational and purchase decision factors as components of enduring involvement, as well as the adoption of the product importance concept as an equivalent or a component of enduring product involvement. The present study provides the theoretical and empirical evidences to prove that product importance is an outcome, rather than a component, of enduring product involvement.
The Impact of Situational Factors (Store, Personal) On Urge to Buy Impulsively and Impulsive Buying Behavior (Published)
In this research, the effect of situational factors (store, personal) to urge to buy impulsively and impulsive buying has been investigated. Considering the huge share of customers with urge to buy impulsively and impulsive buying approach in order to optimal understanding and increasing profit and market share in these conditions, recognizing the features and related factors as an important issue for all marketers and stakeholders has been raised. The statistical population of this research is 384 randomly classified shoppers. The questionnaire with 33 questions has been used to measure the variables. Cronbach alpha and Spilite Halff have been used for reliability evaluation. Structural Equation modeling has been used by AMOS software to study the relationship between variables. The results show that there is a significant direct relationship between the positional factors (shopping) and to urge to buy impulsively and Impulsive buying and there is a meaningful and reverse relationship between the situational factors (personal) and to urge to buy impulsively and Impulsive buying. The results show that by increasing the effect of store factors, the willingness for Impulsive buying behavior will increase, and by increasing of an effect of personal factors, the willingness for Impulsive buying will decrease.
Impact of Saudi Arabia Economic Changes (Oil Shock) 2016 on Consumer Purchasing Habits; With Special Reference to Retail Shopping In KSA (Published)
Consumer behaviour is a complex phenomenon, consisting of a set of decision-making processes, economic determinants and market incentives. The complexity of the buying processes of consumers may be largely linked to a sensation that ‘s hard to predict and control. However, consumers are a primary source of income for business organisations, so knowing their behaviour has a great importance for the survival of business and market prosperity. For this, the researcher focuses primarily on highlighting the effects of the current economic recession (oil shock) of Saudi Arabia among the behaviour of consumers, in particular for household goods. An explorative research followed by descriptive research has been taken. Primary data has been obtained through a close-ended questionnaire, and it was collected using online Google form and the personal basis from the consumer of Saudi Arabia during January 2017 March 2017. Following receiving the data, it was examined with deceptive statistics. Chi2 test at P. Value 0.05, correlation coefficient has been utilised to check the validity and reliability of the hypothesis, and results were interpreted accordingly in the article. It was investigated that the majority of the respondents had a negative impact of the current economic crisis on the household purchase. Besides, it was also found that there was a variation in opinion among the respondents regarding the changes of their household consumption and expenses before and after the economic crisis (Oil shock).
Cognitive innovative consumers are an important segment of market for many firms, the revenues from sale of new products to these consumers and advertising by them, play an important role for firms. Hence having a correct understanding from their shopping style helps the firms to create and implement effective marketing plans for the new products. The current study investigates the shopping styles of cognitive innovative consumers. A structural equation model is used to test the relationship between cognitive innovativeness and various shopping approaches. The research is based on a sample of university student consumers in Iran. Generalizability of the results would depend on future research conducted in other cultures and consumers of other groups. The resulted findings from this research show that the shopping style of these consumers follows the quality consciousness style. Results point that firms should target the cognitive innovative customers in order to have a successful marketing in regards with attracting customers and increasing the revenues from selling their products
The Buying Pattern of Energy Drink and its Use among the Young Generation of Saudi Arabia (Published)
Energy drink intake has to turn into a favorite exercise around the world, in particular among the younger generation. In Saudi Arabia, there are significant limitations in energy drinks – in abstract, tastes, advertising, the attention of sponsorship, are not permitted,” however, it is not limited to the use of social media. The core purpose of this study is to investigate the consumption patterns of energy drinks among young people in Saudi Arabia even after partial restrictions on the promotion of energy drinks. This method of the research was used an exploratory approach in nature with the data collection through survey method (Maxim, 1999) were gathered from the respondents. A self-administered structured questionnaire was developed using survey monkey online services. After getting the responses, the data were edited, tabulated and analyzed using descriptive statistics (Frequency distribution) through the excel sheet and the result was explained accordingly. The result reveals that there is a trend of widespread use of energy drinks among young people, especially students in the age group 23-27 (72.10%). It also indicates that there is a high level of social acceptance of energy drink consumption in the region. The respondents showed a tendency towards buying decisions of it, but between the choice of brands, a certain degree of loyalty was shown. There is a call of some awareness program to increase the knowledge among the youth about the consumption of energy drinks and their effects on health.
The Influence of National Culture on International Marketing & Consumer Behavior in Iraqi Kurdistan, Using Hofstede’s Model At Individual Level (Published)
There are growing interest in the consequences of culture for global marketing and advertising and many recent researches urged companies to consider the necessity of adapting their international marketing strategies to the culture of the consumer (De Mooij and Hofstede, 2010). In order to investigate the influence of national culture on international marketing and consumer behavior and answer the research questions in Iraqi Kurdistan, this paper tend to identify Hofstede cultural dimensions and explain how these dimensions may impact the global marketing management. This paper was divided into three main parts. The first part of this research concentrates on international marketing as well as national culture and tries to investigate the past research on how national culture as an independent variable may influence international marketing and consumer behavior as dependent variable. In the second part of this study, two main questions were raised and a quantitative self-respond questionnaire was used to measure the cultural values at individual level. This research used convenience sample method and it is based on the sample of 272 professionals mostly managers at different levels and combined with the previous research sample of 441 students to bring consistency and reliability to the research and also reduce sample error. In the third part, data were measured and analyzed and at the end a discussion was developed to answer the questions. The findings explain the relationship between both variables and support the past works by De Mooij and Hofstede as concrete works that can be applied by international managers. Therefore, this author can conclude that this paper provide strong argument that there is positive relationship between national culture and international marketing and consumer behavior. There are some suggestions for more cross-cultural research in this part of the world.
REMAINING COMPETITIVE IN TODAY’S SIGNIFICANT SHIFT IN CONSUMER CONSUMPTION PATTERN OF LAGER AND CIDER BEER: CASE OF DELTA BEVERAGE GWERU, ZIMBABWE (Published)
After the introduction of the multi-currency system, in 2009, with the $US dollar as the common currency, there was notable improvements in the economy of Zimbabwe, which also resulted in considerable shifts in the alcoholic beverages industry as well as significant shifts in the consumption behavior of consumers. This research looked at 1) relevance of age and consumption patterns 2) gender gap and alcoholic beverage consumption patterns 3) changing role of women and alcohol consumption related behavior. The aim of the research was to come up with current typical alcoholic beverage consumption pattern which will enhance the strategic and tactical approach for Delta beverage Gweru and the national market as a whole as well as improve the understanding of consumer behavior on an academic perspective
EVALUATING EFFECT OF SOCIAL FACTORS AFFECTING CONSUMER BEHAVIOR IN PURCHASING HOME FURNISHING PRODUCTS IN JORDAN (Published)
The present study examined the impact of social factors on consumer behavior in evaluative criteria of the purchased home furnishing in Amman (Jordan). In the literature, there are a few previous studies which have explored the topics on consumer behavior and home furniture industry in Jordan. Furthermore, the objective of this study is to investigate of purchasing behavior of home furniture consumers in Jordan. This study then will evaluate the factors that have influences on furniture purchasing decision process. The findings will allow the researcher to be able to recommend to Jordan furniture manufacturers and retailers. Also, questionnaires were distributed and self-administered to 400 respondents. Descriptive analysis, factors analysis, test of reliability, correlation test, and regression analysis were used in this study. The study results demonstrated that there is a positive and significant relationship between reference group, family, price, quality, color, and purchasing decision. In addition, implications of this work and directions for future research are discussed.