Influence of Teachers’ Gender and Age on the Integration of Computer Assisted Instruction in Teaching and Learning of Social Studies among Basic Schools in Tamale Metropolis (Published)
This study was conducted in Tamale Metropolis to explore the influence of teachers’ variables (gender and age) on the level of integration of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) in the teaching and learning of Social Studies. Three research questions and two hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. Quantitative research design was employed for the study. Data for the research was collected from 20 Junior High Schools randomly sampled from Tamale Metropolis using Krejcie & Morgan table for sample size determination. Data was collected by means of structured questionnaires administered to 60 Social Studies teachers from the 20 sampled schools. The questionnaire was designed with a 5-point Likert scale using closed ended questions. The questionnaire was pre-tested in a pilot study to guarantee its reliability using Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient formula. It yielded an alpha of .78 which was good and was applied for the study. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Frequencies were used to analyze data on teachers’ perceptions on the integration of CAI, extent of integration and challenges encountered. Chi-square was used to test the hypothesis to determine whether there is a significant difference between male and female teachers and young and old teachers’ implementation of CAI in teaching and learning of Social Studies. The findings discovered most teachers have positive attitude towards the integration of CAI in teaching and learning of Social Studies. Some of the teachers also incorporate CAI into their Social Studies instructions. However, the Social Studies teachers encounter a number of challenges such as limited number of computers, lack of time, lack of technical support, lack of internet among others. It was also discovered that more male teachers use video and radio in their instructions than their females’ counterparts. Old teachers also integrate video and radio in their lessons than the younger ones. However, generally, there was no significant difference between old and young teachers’ application of CAI in Social Studies teaching and learning. Based on the findings, it has been recommended that there should be periodic training of teachers on how to incorporate CAI in their lessons, reform of teacher training curriculum to allow technology integration, and supplying of laptops to teachers and students to enable them effectively incorporate CAI in their lessons to improve students learning outcomes. Government of Ghana in partnership with private sector and NGOs should design and implement intervention to eliminate all barriers to integration of CAI in all schools.
Keywords: Computer Assisted Instruction, Computer Based Learning, Constructivist, Digital Literacy, Gender, Pedagogy, Policy, Social Studies, Teacher Professional Development, and Hypothesis.