Risk and Safety Management in the Construction Industry: A Case of Tamale Metropolis, Northern Region (Published)
The paper examines the key factors that influence risk and safety performance of construction sites, the effects of accidents on construction site and the measures that will improve risk and safety performance on construction sites in the Tamale Metropolis in the Northern Region of Ghana. Three research questions were formulated. The study adopted descriptive research that is mixed methodology approach. The research instruments employed were self- administered questionnaires, interviews and observations which were used in collecting primary data from the selected construction firms. The population of the study was two hundred and thirty (230) selected individuals. They consist of site supervisors (60), site engineers (60), architect (30), consultants (20) and general foremen (60) in the Tamale Metropolis of Northern Region of Ghana. Interview guide were also sent out to reach thirty (30) Project Managers of the registered Ghanaian contractors and an observations were made in six (6) different project sites to get the right information about risk and safety management in the construction industry .Stratified random and non-proportional probability sampling techniques were employed for the study. The findings of the study on factors that influence risk and safety performance revealed some important factors which include; lack of implementation of mandatory PPE policy on site, inadequate and safe means of access to and from at workplaces, difficulties in accessing risk and safety records due to restricted working conditions, and less or no lighting in confine areas on site to ensure risk and safety management. The findings of the study also gave the effects of construction sites accidents and their consequences; on fatal accidents, day’s work is suspended, construction companies pay huge sums of compensation, some accidents lead to loss of lives. The study made some recommendations which, if adopted, will lead to significant improvements in the risk and safety performance of construction companies in Ghana.
Appropriate Construction Technologies to Control the Effects of Wet Conditions in Wetlands in Building Industry in Kumasi Metropolis (Published)
There is increasing pressure on all-natural resources including wetlands which numerous building and construction activities, such as religious structures, residential facilities and service stations are being constructed without due consideration to effects of wet conditions and the buffer range at which physical development must be restrained. This study explores the appropriate construction technologies to control the effects of wet conditions on buildings in wetlands in Kumasi Metropolis. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey design with a mixed method approach. 120 respondents were randomly selected from a population of 450 developers for the study. The research used questionnaire to collect data. SPSS were used to analyse the data collected. The study reveals that wet conditions contributed to eight (8) defects to buildings and nine (9) appropriate technologies that could be used to control effect of wet conditions. Also, it was found that developers used all the nine technologies. Finally, the results show an increasing trend of the use of proper technologies in recent times. The study strongly recommends that city authority should strengthen the departments/agencies that take charge of supervision on building construction activities with appropriate logistics to enable them discharge their duties effectively.
The study seeks to investigate the effect of a good knowledge of mathematical concept of area on the quantification and estimation of tiles in a building construction. To achieve the purpose of this study, one null hypothesis was formulated. An experimental design was adopted for this study. A Sample of ten (10) tillers who attained primary education was collected from a building construction site. This was divided into two groups of five (5) tillers each, the experimental group tillers taught with mathematics concept of area) and the control group (tillers taught area without mathematics concept of area). The instrument for data collection was workers ability on quantification and estimation test (WAQET), with reliability index of 0.87. The hypothesis was tested using the independent t-test analysis at p>O.O5 level of sigi4flcance, the result showed a mean score of (10. 09) of the experimental group which was higher than the mean score of (8.02) for the control group. The analysis reveals that tillers who had a good knowledge of mathematical concept of area were better in quantification and estimation of tiles.
That growing interest with the beginning of the 1970s by the employment Social Enterprise along with its economic growth has led to attempts to develop models for the measurement and disclosure of accounting data for the social function, and thus enable the Department to identify the importance of responsible social enterprise in terms of its impact on the performance and business results and then all this reflection on the ability of the financial statements the fair expression of truth and the development and performance of enterprise.As well as the Called community enterprises to act in a more responsible, where you want all categories on understand how these modules in environments in which they operate and thus in performance by taking decisions At present, many parties Relevant need to deal with information to identify the performance of a business and most of the information they need can be obtained partly from financial reporting standard, but even today does not meet all the needs of these users they need other types of information, such as social , which reflects the extent of behavior established by a responsible environment.The construction companies of the most important classes you need for accounting information and deals from To learn about the performance of the installations and especially nowadays where the global economy enters the third millennium, the era of globalization, which is influenced by a set of variables global economic was and still is and will remain radical and profound repercussions on the performance and business perspective that companies play a vital role in the economic development and social .Therefore the companies if it can play an active role in this area, they have committed themselves to social responsibility of accounting disclosure, which is the focus of attention of the accounting message recipients where these objectives vary, which is reflected in the differing quality of information representing the accounting message content, as reflected both on the language of the message and content of the accounting and presentation, so the information disclosure of corporate operations will definitely positive results at the local level and international level there by maximizing social welfare.
A heat exchanger is a device used to transfer thermal energy (enthalpy) between two or more fluids, at different temperatures. This tube type lubricating oil heat exchanger is used to extract heat from lubricating oil circulating in the main engine of a vessel. Its operation is based on the principle of heat balance, given as: Q=MhCph∆Th = McCpc∆Tc. This heat exchanger was designed using the Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference method and it takes up sea water at 27 degree celsius and exits it at a temperature of 68 degree celsius. The exchanger has 96 tubes and a shell area of 0.0239 square meter, with an overall heat transfer coefficient of 172.3W/moc and effectiveness of 50.41 percent. The paper shows standard steps to design and analyze the working and performance of a Tube type heat exchanger. By plotting a graph of effectiveness against lubricating oil temperature difference, using the energy balance equation and analyzing same, the maximum possible effectiveness is obtained. The uniqueness of this design is essentially in its mode of operation, simplicity and construction.
Improving Durability of Rural Buildings in Riverine Niger Delta Region: A Case Study on Need to Utilize Appropriate Technology (Published)
Most rural communities in riverine Niger Delta do not have buildings that are conducive for habitation because the materials used for their construction are of organic origin such as thatch, mud, timber etc. This made them biodegradable and decay quickly. More frequent replacement of such materials is required because of their low durability. Further, factors such as non-availability of conventional building materials, cost of transportation, incomes levels of the people, absence of available skilled labour and lack of appropriate technology in the manufacture of building materials affect the provision of durable and affordable buildings in the riverine rural Niger delta communities. Therefore, there is need to device other means of providing durable rural buildings in terms of materials for roofing, walls, foundation as well as construction methods. The utilization of appropriate technology for building materials and construction methods is recommended as remedy.
This study was carried out to identify the factors influencing the performance of construction projects in Akure, Nigeria. A questionnaire survey was conducted and forty six (46) factors were identified, categorized into eight (8) groups, evaluated and ranked according to participants’ perspectives. Fifty (50) questionnaires were distributed as follows: 12 to clients, 18 to consultants and 20 to contractors. The outcome of these analyses showed that all the respondents agreed that construction projects were influenced by all the forty six factors indicated by the questionnaire. However, the analysis indicated that the top ten (10) factors that have the highest average index showed how these factors are affecting construction projects. Based on these findings, this study recommended that contractors’ progress payment should be made on time as well as minimizing change orders during construction to avoid delays. Also, consultants should give full commitment to monitor the project progress and ensure the work was according to specifications and satisfactory quality; meeting owner needs and expectation within the project budget and stipulated time. Finally, continuous coordination and relationship between project participants were required through the project life cycle in order to ensure project performance.
Impact of Illiterate Rural Migrant Workers on the Effectiveness of Construction Safety Induction in Lagos State Nigeria (Published)
Demand for housing, factory buildings and other social infrastructural development in the major urban cites around the world are ever on the increase. To meet the high demand of labour force required, contractors often employ illiterate rural migrant workers that drift from rural areas to cities for greener pasture. These categories of construction site workers have poor understanding of English and therefore contribute to a disproportionate number of site fatalities and injuries on sites. This study aimed at investigating the extent to which these illiterate rural migrant construction site workers impact on the effectiveness of construction safety induction training on sites. The study examines the demographic data of the illiterate rural migrant construction site workers, construction H&S legislation and language used in conducting site safety induction training to the workers. Questionnaire survey was then structured from literature and administered to workers with the aid of interpreters. This was followed by interviews conducted with site supervisors. Data was electronically manipulated using MS Excel. From the analysis, the study revealed that about 64.5% of the general workers are rural migrant workers with no basic education and trade qualifications. The study further revealed that poor understanding of spoken English among the rural migrant workers contribute to site injuries and fatalities. Nevertheless, there is lack of commitment on the part of contracting organizations, particularly among the medium and small sized companies in conducting safety induction training to workers. The study concludes that H&S is an important issue in the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) all over the World. The Act emphasizes the importance of employee education pertaining to H&S of the work environment regardless of whether the employee is educated or illiterate. The study therefore recommends that contractors conduct site H&S induction training to workers whether they are temporary or permanent; and that safety induction training should be conducted in local language of the rural migrant workers.
Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess the perceptions of the players in Ghana‟s Construction industry (GCI) on the pervasiveness of conflict of interest and corruption in the industry.
Research Design: The study involved the undertaking of an extensive literature review on the subject matter. Additionally, employing the principles of a “survey approach to research”, a questionnaire was developed, which sought to primarily establish, which of the stages of the procurement process was most susceptible to corruption and acts of conflict of interest Purposive sampling was utilized and descriptive statistics and relative importance index were used to analyze the data.
Research Limitations: The use of purposive sampling limited the survey to the participants of the procurement forum.
Findings: From the study, acts of conflict of interest and corrupt practices are still pervasive in the construction industry and the tender stage, contract execution stage and final accounting and auditing stage were found to be the stages of the public procurement process that are most susceptible to the perpetuation of acts of conflict of interest and corrupt practices in Ghana.
Response to the conference theme and outcome: This study unearths the level of corrupt practices and conflicts of interest in the construction industry in Ghana.
Practical Implications: The study increases the awareness of the prevalence of conflict of interest and corrupt practices in the construction industry despite the interventions made by successive Governments to curb same.
Originality: The study explores issues of conflict of interest and corrupt practices in the Ghanaian construction procurement landscape and identified some stages in the procurement process prone to conflict of interest and corrupt practices which if given attention safeguard the already stretched public purse.
CONSTRUCTION OF SOCIO-CULTURAL AND POLITICAL ORIENTATION OF THE FOLLOWERS OF MUHAMMADIYAH AND NAHDLATUL ULAMA (NU) IN THE POST REFORM ERA IN EAST JAVA INDONESIA (Published)
Indonesia’s population of approximately 248.216.193 million spread over almost the entire Indonesian archipelago. There are many different religions and beliefs living in Indonesia, but only five religions recognized by the government, Islam, Christian, Catholic, Hindu, and Buddhist. Among the followers of these religions, Muslims are the most numerous, especially people who inhabit the island of Java. Islam in Indonesia organized by several Islamist organizations. The largest Islamic organizations are Muhammadiyah and Nahdlatul Ulama (NU). To find the development of two organizations community mentioned above, this study aims to (1) describe the cultural and social changes, the Muhammadiyah and NU, and (2) describe the social significance of these changes (cultural and social) for the social life of Muhammadiyah and NU and, (3) Describe the political orientation of Muhammadiyah and NU in Indonesian. With the data collection methods of observation, in-depth interviews, and questionnaires, this study concludes that in terms of socio-cultural of the two community, both Muhammadiyah and NU is located at the same position, ie there is no difference in the use of all forms of development and progress of existing as the impact factor of the development of religious thought, economic, social, cultural, and education is growing in Indonesia. The level of Islam, both Muslim organization has no principle difference. The most prominent difference is evident in the relationship between followers and leaders. The relation between followers and leaders at Muhammadiyah are to be equality, while at NU in general is more stratification (hierarchy). This is kind of relationship models for each follower will affect their behavior patterns in several ways, including the orientation or political aspirations. Regarding the political aspirations orientation (political party) there is a difference between Muhammadiyah and NU. The difference was due to the different nature of the base due to the influence of the history of the organization and community levels as well as models of the relationship between followers and leaders in their organizations respective. Regarding the choice of the party, Muhammadiyah members more rational while at NU generally more emotional and to the organization and kiai (religious scholar).